International Journal of Dental and Medical Specialty
Category - Editorial
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Title:
Pharmacovigilance in Medical Writing-Arm for Patient Care
Abstract:

Editorial

Category - Clinical Practice Evidence
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Title:
Preventive Approach for Oral Health Condition inside a Romanian Private Dental Office: A Epidemiological Study
Abstract:
The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological research in the private dental clinic was to evaluate the preventive measures and oral health condition status that could take place inside the private dental office. The primary objective was to obtain a protocol by calculating and evaluating various indexes for the preventive measures in the private room. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 499 patients in which 260 females and 239 were males from Romanian population who were checked and evaluated for complete oral health condition and decayed teeth (DT) by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, for the periodontal disease by community periodontal index treatment needs (CPITN) and gingival index, and for masticatory function by functional teeth unit index and new invented group strategy treatment index (SGTI) index. The data were obtained before and after the preventive treatment in DMFT and was compared and evaluated. Using a preformed Performa for this study all patients’ oral health status data were recorded and
observed. Results: Obtained data by SGTI index and others we found that poor oral hygiene and bad periodontal condition was observed (P < 0.001) in Romania tribes. Using preventive measures, giving education to patients for oral hygiene maintenance and dental implants we manage to pull back the DMFT index (P < 0.001) for 18% of the studied persons from an average of 14-30 DMFT to 12-20. The other indexes have showed a better health status with percentages between 0% and 87%. Conclusions: The results of our study could lead to a new approach to evaluate and prevent from initial caries, periodontal disease, and DT by restoration and treatment of missing teeth using implants, etc., inside the private dental practice. This is an original Research that presents two new and unprecedented ideas for decreasing DMFT index by using implants and rematerializing procedures, and the use of a newly invented index named SGTI for group strategy treatment. The use of epidemiologic index inside the private dental offi ce is also an original approach to the dental procedures.
Category - Original Article
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Title:
Changes in Intra-cerebral Oxygenation During Intravenous and Inhalational Sedation: A Original Research
Abstract:

Although sedatives such as midazolam or nitrous oxide  (N2O) are administered to dental patients, the effects of these drugs on intra?-cerebral oxygenation are not well?-known. Aims: We investigated the effects of intravenous midazolam or inhalational N2O on intra?-cerebral oxygenation using near?-infrared spectroscopy. Setting and Design:   University hospital, prospective. Materials and Methods: During intravenous sedation, volunteers received supplemental oxygen through nasal cannula at 3  L/min for 10  min  (control group). Midazolam  (0.05  mg/kg) was then injected intravenously with flumazenil  (20  mg) injected 30  min later. In the inhalational sedation study, volunteers lay quietly for 10  min receiving 100% oxygen, then received N2O via nasal mask at concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 25% for 5  min; 30% for 20  min; and supplemental oxygen at 100% for 15  min after N2O was discontinued. Statistical Analysis: Intra?-group comparisons were made using one?-way analysis of variance for repeated measures followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons. Differences were considered statistically significant at P  < 0.05. Results: During intravenous sedation, oxyhemoglobin increased 10  min after midazolam administration, and total hemoglobin increased slightly until 20  min after flumazenil administration, followed by a decrease. During inhalational sedation, oxyhemoglobin increased until 5  min after starting N2O, and total hemoglobin increased until 5  min after starting N2O, followed by a decrease. Conclusions: Midazolam and N2O influenced intra?-cerebral oxygenation during intravenous or inhalational sedation. Cerebral blood flow increased with intravenous sedation when midazolam was administered once at a dose of 0.05  mg/kg and with inhalational sedation when N2O was supplied at a concentration of 25?-30%.

Category - Case Report
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Title:
Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Enteric Fever & Immunological Failure in HIV Positive Soldier: Case Report
Abstract:

Incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is 2-10  times more in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons than non-HIV cohort. Risk factors involved with DVT in HIV-infected patients are age older than 45  years, use of protease inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART), most common indinavir, hospitalization and presence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci (is a yeast-like fungus particularly in immune-compromised host), and Mycobacterium-intracellular. Others well known thrombogenic risk factors include are such as immobility, cigarette smoking, advanced age, pregnancy, pelvic surgery, and personal or family history of DVT may be absent in HIV-infected patients presenting with DVT. Inflammation and venous thrombosis are related to each other, and the associations between them are strong when the inflammation or the infection has occurred recently, or the inflammation is active. A 29-year-old HIV-positive soldier on first-line ART with poor adherence presented with fever pain abdomen and diarrhea and was diagnosed to have an enteric fever with immunological and clinical failure. He was treated for enteric fever but during treatment of enteric fever he complains of painful left lower limb swelling after 4  weeks and was suspect to have DVT of left lower limb based on Doppler studies. After confirmation of DVT by Doppler images, thrombolytic therapy was started, and gradually improvement was seen in the condition. Recent Infection or inflammation has a strong association with the development of thrombosis in HIV-positive patients, absent with classical predisposing factors of DVT. Physicians involved in the care of HIV-positive patients should be aware of this condition and the associated aggravating risk factors in them so as to provide timely management.

Category - Review Article
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Title:
Alcohol-containing Mouthwash and Oral Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review
Abstract:
The aim of this article is to assess any possible risk of oral cancer with increased usage of alcohol-based mouthwashes and to provide relevant information regarding the safety of using alcohol-containing mouth rinses. Materials and Methods: Several controversial studies regarding the prolonged use of such mouthwashes containing >25% alcohol causes oral cancers, have been reviewed and undertaken. Analyzing the number of studies done till date, it showed debatable views on the use of alcohol-containing mouthwashes and its relation with causing oral cancers. Many studies supported the use of alcohol-based mouthwashes can cause oral cancer, while few studies showed no significant relation of mouthwashes with oral cancers. Conclusion: To conclude, the relation between mouthwashes containing alcohol and oral cancers is still a contentious issue in the scientific community. On comparing the available reviews, it proved that prolonged use of alcohol-based mouthwashes might cause oral cancers. Thus, it’s advisable for the clinicians to educate patients about the ill-effects of long-term use of alcohol-based mouthwashes and to minimize the number of times it’s used per day. And to prefer the use of nonalcohol-based mouthwashes instead of the former.
Category - Review Article
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Title:
Permanent Restoration in Endodontically Treated Teeth: Clinical Dilemma, Future Trends and Review of Literature
Abstract:
The final and quality restoration of endodontically treated teeth involves a critical decision-making step, especially when in cases where difficult, complex prosthetic rehabilitations are required. Regarding single tooth undergoing an endodontic procedure, there are high-level requirements for the restorative components and the application of all necessary treatment steps to achieve the final restoration. Teeth that are affected by caries, fractured teeth or any pathology and tooth having multiple restorations that can be treated endodontically or conservatively are considered for endodontic surgical procedures. In addition to supposed teeth for a desirable endodontic procedure and under curative nature for endodontic treatment that is already weakened due to any anomaly it will further lead to weakening of internal as well as external tooth structures. Therefore, it is well-accepted fact that on the basis of previous literatures and researched that endodontically treated teeth are structurally weaker, and they require special consideration for final restoration which should involves increased retention procedures to increase lifespan of that tooth, while maintaining adequate root strength. Different materials and techniques have been developed and or proposed to restore such teeth while retaining their function, strength, and longevity.