International Journal of Dental and Medical Specialty
Category - Editorial
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Title:
Focused Assessment Sonography in Trauma: An Impending Screening Advancement in Trauma
Abstract:

Trauma is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. The increased knowledge of ultrasound in the diagnosis of life-threatening injuries leads to the development of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST). The FAST is used the most common in trauma patients with blunt injuries. In  trauma patients, evident bleeding may be seen without noticeable warning signs into the peritoneal, pleural, or pericardial spaces. The aim of bedside ultrasound in trauma is to distinguish rapidly free fluid (usually blood) in the peritoneal, pericardial, or pleural spaces. The FAST scan is used with diagnostic peritoneal lavage and computed tomography scan by experienced trauma surgeon’s team.

Category - Guest Editorial
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Title:
Ethics in Medicine - Concept for Public Health
Abstract:

With great power comes great responsibility,” our profession is a breathing example of this adage. While we graduate as doctors, we take the Hippocratic Oath, which emphasizes “Primum non-nocere” meaning “do no harm.” Still during the course of our practice, we come across situations that challenge our capacity for judgment to do the minimal amount of harm. Triage is one such situation. When the resources are scarce and situation demands contrast supply, we must be able to pass the correct judgment to make sure that we are using it wisely. Physician-assisted suicide is another end of the spectrum where we must make the decision based on ethical as well as practical standards. Such decisions could be done only if the person has worked ethics and moral integrity. Hence, medical practice is not only a test of knowledge but also the test of the integrity of character of the individual. Treating the person as a whole rather than a particular disease is the need of the hour. The doctor should understand the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of the patients and take necessary steps for the well-being of the patient. This requires entire time, attention, and patience toward the patients.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Self-care of Oral Health Status and Uses of Interdental Aids among Dental Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract:

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice regarding interdental aids among dental students. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered, structured, and pre-validated close ended questionnaire. Among dental students studying at the College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Results: Total of 752 dental students from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th year and interns who completed the questionnaire and participated in the study. About 88.2% interns recommend brush, paste, and floss, whereas 52% the 1st  year students recommended brush, paste, floss, and mouthwash. 94.1% interns and maximum percentage of students from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th  year used dental floss for removal of plaque and debris from the interproximal area, whereas 82.4% of the interns brushed their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the knowledge and practice of interdental aids among dental students. The overall knowledge about the interdental aids, i.e.   dental floss was good, but they had less knowledge about the other interdental aids available. The practice regarding the usage of dental floss improved with increasing levels of dental education. Additional comparisons should be conducted to evaluate the oral hygiene and periodontal status of those subjects including dental students and practitioners using toothbrush alone, interdental aids and a combination of toothbrush along with the interdental aids.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Evaluation of the Use of Sixth Generation Apex Locators as a Diagnostic Tool to Detect Root Perforations
Abstract:

Aim: The sixth generation apex locators served as an efficient diagnostic tool for detecting root perforations as these are based on the principle of impedance rather than the conventional gradient method. However, their diagnostic accuracy not evaluated well. In the existing study, we assessed and compared the efficacy of two apex locators for diagnostic perspective. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 extracted teeth were perforated and mounted using alginate (Alginate Impression Material, 3M ESPE, USA). Two different apex locators  -   Raypex® 6 Apex Locator (VDW) and ProPex Pixi (Dentsply, USA) were used to detect the intentionally created root perforations (i.e., distance from file tips to external outline of the root surface). The two apex locators measured the same root perforations and compared statistically. Results: The mean distance from file tips to external outline of the root surface was found significantly different and lower (59.9%) in Raypex® 6 Apex Locator as compared to Propex Pixi (mean ± standard deviation: 0.39 ± 0.04  vs. 0.16 ± 0.02, t = 30.57, P < 0.001). Conclusion: We found Raypex® 6 Apex Locator better for root perforations.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Changes in Intracellular Ca2+ Induced with Adrenaline in Swine Lingual Artery
Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Dental doctors routinely infiltrate adrenaline combined with lidocaine into the oral mucosa. However, they do not well know the physiological characteristics and mechanisms of contraction induced by adrenaline in the oral maxillofacial artery. We investigated the changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration by an adrenaline-induced contraction in the swine lingual artery. Materials and Methods: We prepared artery rings with denuded endothelium and simultaneously measured tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The effects of adrenaline in the presence or absence of intracellular Ca2+ on artery rings and verapamil on Ca2+ influx activated by adrenaline were assessed. Results:   In  the presence of intracellular Ca2+, the application of adrenaline caused a rapid increase in tension and [Ca2+ i, which then decreased slowly. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, adrenaline caused a transient increase in [Ca2+]i and tension. The application of adrenaline in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ after depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ store caused a slow increase in [Ca2+]i and tension, while co-treatment with verapamil inhibited the increases in [Ca2+]intracellular and tension was induced by adrenaline. The tension relationship obtained with adrenaline was located on the left of the [Ca2+]i-tension relation curve obtained with KCl. Conclusions: The induction of contraction may involve three mechanisms: (1) Release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store, (2) influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and (3) the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus.

Category - Case Report
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Title:
Periodontitis and Hereditary Epidermolysis Bullosa: A Rare Case Report and Review
Abstract:

Hereditary epidermolysis bullosa (EB) refers to a group of rare genodermatoses and mutational impairment of the structural and functional integrity of skin, i.e.,   intra-epidermal adhesion and dermo-epidermal anchorage. It is a group of inherited heterogenous mechano- bullous disease that appears on the skin (Fragile) and mucosa (mucous membrane) in the form of blisters associated with minimal mechanical trauma. It is a dermatological condition formed in severe auto-immune disease. EB dystrophica has been presented with various oral manifestations, and earlier dental treatment was restricted to an extraction of all permanent teeth with a construction of complete denture. However, patients suffering from EB also respond well to conventional periodontal therapy. We present the case report of the 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with EB, who reported with the chief complaint of gingival bleeding and difficulty in chewing food due to the mobile teeth. A  comprehensive interdisciplinary treatment planning was employed. We find this case report interesting, being one of the rare conditions, reporting periodontal alterations in the patient suffering from EB.

Category - Case Report
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Title:
Unilateral Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy: Surgical Intervention and Case Report
Abstract:

Hypertrophy is related to an enlargement caused by a growth in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalized masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters, and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseter hypertrophy is recognized as a rare disorder and persistent asymptomatic enlargement of one or both masseter muscles. Etiology for benign masseteric hypertrophy is unknown in most of the cases so considered as idiopathic. Although numerous factors such as facial asymmetry, trismus, protrusion, bruxism, clenching, malocclusion, or temporomandibular disorders have been reported on the basis of clinical examination and cited previous literatures but have not proven still. This article reports a case of unilateral benign masseter hypertrophy  with  retrognathic  mandible  in  which  surgical intervention was rendered to the patient by using a combination approach