International Journal of Dental and Medical Specialty
Category - Editorial
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Title:
Editorial- Cancer: The Target
Abstract:
Cancer is the most common and frequent seen malignancy, third in India and second leading cause of death in the
United States. Oncology is a branch of science that specializes and deals in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and characterized by the uncontrolled abnormal growth of cells. The word onco means mass, tumor or bulk and logy means study and it can develop anywhere in the body. It includes medical oncology (the use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and other drugs to treat cancer), radiation oncology (the use of radiation therapy to treat cancer), and surgical oncology (the use of surgery and other procedures to treat cancer). The three most common type of cancer in India are oral cancer (head and neck cancer), lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervix cancer.
Category - Original Article
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Title:
Mandibular Cortical Index Can Be Possible Indicator of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Woman: A Prospective Study
Abstract:
Objective: The consequences of aging often involve the risk of osteoporosis, leading to an impaired quality of life of the elderly patients specially postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis accounts 0.83% of non-communicable disease globally having significant health and economic impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate the changes of mandibular cortical bone with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic patient. Materials and Methods: 300 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients included in these study. All patients were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for BMD, and orthopantomograph (OPG). Mandibular cortical index (MCI) was seen from OPG categorized into C1, C2, and C3 as the appearance of the mandibular inferior cortex distal to the mental foramen. The criteria of C1 endosteal margin of the cortex is even sharp on both sides of the mandible, C2 endosteal margin has semilunar defects (resorptive cavities) with cortical residues one to three layers thick on one or both sides, C3 endosteal margin consists of thick cortical residues and is clearly porous. Results: The result of this study was showed that mean femoral neck T-score in C1 group and C2 were 2.26 ± 0.81 versus 2.88 ± 0.73, respectively, (P < 0.05) that was statistically significant, lumbar spine T-score in C1 group and C2 were 2.49 ± 0.96 and 2.62 ± 0.72, respectively, (P > 0.05) was not statistically significant and mean femoral neck T-score in C2 group and C3 were 2.88 ± 0.73 vs 2.49 ± 0.96, respectively, (P > 0.05) that was not statistically significant, lumbar spine
T-score in C2 group and C3 were 2.62 ± 0.72 and 3.21 ± 1.18, respectively, (P < 0.05) was statistically significant. MCI-C3 is almost perfect indicator of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Changes of MCI are correlated significantly (P < 0.01) well with osteoporosis variable. Simple, low-cost investigation OPG determining MCI may be helpful as diagnostic tool for osteoporosis. 
Category - Original Article
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Title:
Perception of Teachers about Implementation of Oral Health Education in Primary School Curriculum
Abstract:
Objective: A decayed tooth (dental caries) affects oral health status in children’s more than any other chronic infectious diseases. Untreated tooth decay in children’s can cause pain and secondary infections that will create the problem in eating, playing, speaking, learning, and be successful in school. Untreated dental infections in the mouth also put children at risk for other infections such as ears (otitis media, etc.), sinuses, and other parts of their bodies. School-based oral health education (OHE), screenings, assisted referral, and delivery of oral preventive care services provide equitable, reliable entry into long-term oral health care and assist parents by reducing the need to take time from work and find transportation. Children who receive care in schools also can become an entry point for others in the family to connect with an oral health care provider. The combination of education, prevention, and access to care has the potential to nearly eliminate tooth decay in school-age children. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among government and
semi-government school located in Bhopal city for 6 months using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Out of 300 school teachers, 283 teachers felt that like other general fitness OHE is also as important as general health and should be included in a school health education program. Conclusion: The questionnaire-based study conducted on government and semi-government school teachers supports on implementing oral health program for school children’s oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge.
Category - Original Article
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Title:
Evaluation of Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D Level in Different Stages of Pregnancy in East Indian Population
Abstract:
Background: Vitamin D, serum calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus deficiency during pregnancy is a significant public health problem in many parts of the world. It is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm births. Approximately, 99% of the Ca and magnesium in the human body is located in the skeleton. Ca is a essential nutrient and mineral consumed in food and supplements. The mineral is stored bones where it is used to promote strength and support changes and growth throughout life. There is also free Ca in blood used by cells during the normal cellular function. The objective of this study was to assess the role of Ca, phosphorous and vitamin D level in pregnant women at different age groups compare to nonpregnant women in East Indian population. Materials and Methods: This
cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 normal women between 22 and 45 years of age in their first 24-28 weeks of pregnancy and 50 normal nonpregnant women. After 3 months of follow-up, serum levels of vitamin D and Ca and inorganic phosphorous were measured. Written informed consent was obtained from the subjects. Results: The mean age of women in the study group was 25.34 ± 5.40 years; while that in the control group was 25.80 ± 5.90 years. The age of study and control groups was matched. The result shows that serum Ca and inorganic phosphorous in pregnant women lower significantly (P < 0.001), especially in the third trimester as compared to controls. However, vitamin-D levels in pregnant women lower significantly (P < 0.001) at all trimester as compared to controls. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency coupled with Ca and inorganic phosphorous deficiency may found to be highly prevalent in pregnant East Indian women. The decrease in serum vitamin-D, Ca and inorganic phosphorous levels parallels increase in gestational age. This may result from mineral transfer from mother to developing fetus.