Agro Economist- An International Journal
Category - Research Article
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Title:
Impact of Socio-Economic Variables on Disbursement of Agricultural Loan
Abstract:

Agriculture is also an enterprise like others and success in it also depends on socio-economic development of the locality. Higher development of area in terms of infrastructure as availability of markets, electricity, roads, literacy also increase the profitability in agriculture and thus necessitates the credit requirement in agriculture. The study is based on time series data of Bihar for a period of 25 years that is from 1980-81 to 2005-06. It is found that association between agricultural credit flow and different socio-economic and infrastructure variables when it was analysed for different categories of districts classified on the basis of per hectare agricultural loan. The proportion of electrified villages, road length per 1000 kms of geographical area, literacy per cent, number of dairy co-operatives per 1000 villages, population per bank branch and per capita electricity consumption were comparatively high in districts of category D than the category of districts A, indicating the association of these socio economic and infrastructural variables with agricultural credit flow in different districts of Bihar.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Economic and Production Constraints for Niche crops in Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract:

The niche crops are considered imperative due to their unique characteristics and association to a particular limited region. The consumer’s preference towards these niche crops is mainly high due to the fact that their taste is good and different and is grown only in a specific area. The farmers all over India are engaged in production of such niche crops but whether the farmers are getting special reward or monetary benefits for production of these crops is still needs to be answered. The present study was conducted to identify constraints in production of niche crops namely basmati rice, saffron and pecan nut. The major constraint in basmati production was price fluctuation, followed by unavailability of irrigation water, market problem, poor technical assistance from department and problem of diseases. The low profitability, non-availability of inputs, poor quality of seed, shortage of labour and high cost of agricultural inputs were among the least ranked constraints. The major constraint faced by the farmers of Kishtwar district in the production of saffron was again the price fluctuation,followed by low production of saffron, market problem and degraded quality of seed. The unavailability of seed, problem of diseases and unavailability of irrigation water were among the least ranked constraints. The major constraint faced by the farmers of Poonch district in the production of pecan nut was high mortality of pecan nut trees. This was followed by inadequacy of irrigation water, problems of insect pests, low temperature during fruiting and unavailability of planting material. The lack of subsidy, lack of department support and high cost of inputs were among the least ranked constraints.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Economic analysis of Maize Seed Production on Farmers’ Fields
Abstract:

Maize is an important fodder crop of summer and rainy season and suitable for silage making. It is the fast growing crop grown for both fodder and gain. The economics of Maize seed production crop (cv. African tall) was analysed for the period Kharif 2012-13 in seven farmers’ fields in Nidhan Village, Morena, MP. The highest cost was incurred on harvesting and pooling of mature crop. The average total expenditure incurred on that was 5266.1 and it was 18.8% of total cost. The average total working capital was found as ` 19722.94 per hectare (70.32% of total cost) and total variable cost is ` 20314.63 which is 72.43% of total cost. The average total cost is found as ` 28045 per hectare. The average total labour man days used per hectare are 53.59. The average total expenditure incurred on labour is ` 13305.31 (47.4%) which is found as highest expenditure in total cost. The highest expenditure in percentage term is incurred on labour followed by manures, draft power and seed cost. On per hectare basis the average quality seed production was 1402.68 kilogram. The average rate of quality seed was ` 25 per kilogram. The total return was found as ` 56632.95 per hectare. The average net return is ` 28203.74 per hectare. The average benefit cost ratio at is found as 1.99. The cost of production of seed when only main product quality seed only) was considered for selling was ` 20.30 per kilogram of seed. The cost of production of seed when both main product (quality seed only) and other by-products (dry fodder, rejected seed etc.) was considered was ` 4.9 per kilogram of seed. Thus, it is clear from the study that seed production of Maizeis highly profitable and has wide market available for it.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Economic Performance of Micro Financing Institutions
Abstract:

An attempt has been made to examine economic performance of micro financing institutions in the country over period. The analysis revealed that there is increasing change in opening of branches of micro-financing institution in which the rate of change was nearly 8 percent per annum. In respect to clients the rate of growth per year was observed to be 23% which was pronounced more in clients of small micro-financing group. The employment in micro-financing organization showed positive changes and increased at the rate 17% per annum. The gross loan portfolio of micro financing institution grew at annual rate of 75% in which rate of growth of GLP of small micro financing was higher in comparison of medium and large groups of MFIs. The loan disbursement amount further increased at a rate of 73% in which it was found higher rate in small size group of MFIs. The outstanding loan per client grew at 24% per annum which was less than rate of growth of disbursement. It was also observed that southern region of the country was a head in operating of micro-finance institutions. However, eastern region, western region and central region of the country have also made good progress in establishment of micro-financing institution. The north region and North-east are lagging behind that require special attention for development of micro-financing institution. On the whole there have been significant changes in economic performance of micro-financing institutions of the country.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Economic Impact of Frontline Demonstrations on Basmati Rice
Abstract:

The low yield of basmati rice and consequently low economic benefit has restricted farmers of the district to grow basmati on a larger scale. Basmati rice varieties, therefore, produced by the farmers only for home consumption and there was a very little marketed surplus available. As a consequence of the changed liberalized trade related polices of the Govt. of India and at State level, basmati rice of Jammu province has got recognition in national and international level. Farmers perceived the importance of cultivating basmati varieties for higher returns. A significant number of farmers approached Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kathua for guidance on the issue and KVK helped them to choose the right path. The low yield of basmati rice and consequently low economic benefit has restricted farmers of the district to grow basmati on a larger scale. KVK Kathua serving the farmers of the district by enhancing their farm income identified Pusa 1121 basmati seed as a potential source for increasing the farmers’ income, keeping in view the high price of basmati at national and international markets in the recent past. After standardization and refinement of Pusa 1121 rice variety procured from IARI, New Delhi, KVK has engaged in popularisation of variety through FLDs and trainings. The economics of introducing the intervention has resulted in additional income amounting to ` 2416.64 lakhs till the year 2015 through enhancement of area under Pusa-1121.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Self-Help Groups Effecting the Change in Financial Attributes
Abstract:

Keeping in view the impact of SHGs on generating of additional income and employment opportunities, a micro level field study in Mahewa and Chakarnagar blocks of Etawah district was conducted during the year 2005-06 by personal visits to SHGs and the selected members. For assessing the impact of SHGs on saving mobilization, internal loaning, use of loan and rate of interest, 21 linked SHGs and 33 non linked SHGs, thus total 54 SHGs were studied. The savings of linked SHGs and non-linked SHGs per month per member was ` 32.00 and ` 17.00, respectively. The study showed that per member internal loan was highest in case of linked SHGs as compared to the per member quantum of internal loan in case of non-linked SHGs. Out of the total internal loan i.e. ` 811242.00 lent by linked SHGs and non-linked SHGs, highest amount was spent on consumption and lowest on medication. Regarding rate of interest on internal loan charged by linked SHGs, 42.86% SHGs were charging 2 percent interest per month, 38.08% SHGs were charging 1% interest per month and 19.05% SHGs were charging 3% interest per month. In case of 33 non-linked SHGs, 45.46% SHGs were charging 2% rate of interest per month, 27.27% were charging 3% and reaming 27.27 % SHGs were charging 1% percent rate of interest per month from the members.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Impact of MGNREGA Scheme on Employment and Income: A Case Study of Himachal Pradesh
Abstract:

The present study evaluated the impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme on employment and income generation in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Since the performance of the district in implementation of MNREGS has been lauded, therefore, it was felt imperative to examine the impact of scheme on employment, income and consumption pattern of beneficiaries and to see whether it has been able to uplift the living standards of the people or not. The primary data were collected from 90 households (60 beneficiaries and 30 non-beneficiaries) selected randomly in Chandropa panchayat of Panchrukhi block in Kangra district. The results indicated that all the mandatory guidelines of the scheme were found to be followed properly except for the provision of 100 days of employment and payment of wages on weekly basis to the workers. An increase of 78.47 per cent was noticed in the employment generated in case of beneficiary households. The income of beneficiary households was found to be higher by 12.29 per cent with working under MNREGS as compared to income without MNREGS. A reduction in the coefficient of variation with respect to employment (55.24 to 33.07 per cent), income (71.99 to 62.59 per cent) and pattern of consumption expenditure (29.15 to 26.09 per cent in physical terms and 28.23 to 26.57 per cent in monetary terms) was also observed. The pertinent problems pinpointed by local functionaries were insufficient and untimely flow of funds by higher authorities and were non-provision of 100 days employment and delay in payment of wages as reported by the households. Therefore, there is need to strengthen sufficient and timely release of funds to Panchayats by higher authorities and provision of 100 days employment and timely payment of wages to workers by the Panchayat representatives.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Aquaculture for Doubling the Farmer’s income
Abstract:

Farming community in India is highly diverse with respect to land holdings (large progressive farmers with big land holdings to small/marginal farmers with small holdings) and farming activity (crop cultivation, horticulture, floriculture, dairy, poultry, fisheries and many other allied activities). Operating small land holdings for sustainable economic benefits is becoming unviable due to many socio-economic factors and changing climate. For resource deficient small/marginal farmers, income flows are inadequate for supporting farm households. Productivity and farm income is declining and farmer community is sinking into poverty, indebtedness and distress due to uncertainties of input/output prices and markets, coupled with adverse impact of policy action and climate change. Doubling farmer’s income was initiative taken by Prime Minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi on 28 February, 2016 so that the income of farmers can be doubled by 2022. In order to enhance farmers’ income, there is a need to increase farm productivity through technological interventions, improve market access, and also to develop the industrial and service sectors to support various farmer activities in terms of marketing and processing of their produce and other requirements in terms of self-employment/employment in farming sector.

Category - Original Article
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Title:
Analytical Study on Effect of Stress on the Employee Performance: A Case of Agri-Business Retail Outlets in Jammu
Abstract:

The research study has been conducted on the levels, causes and consequences of stress in relation to job, pay packages, relation with colleagues, and environment. Stress is a crucial word in organizations in the present scenario. Without knowing the mental status and physical capacity and calibre, organizations are just assigning work to the employees. Stress at times can be taken as a positive word also but maximum times it is taken in a negative sense. The present paper is an attempt to focus on the stress level and factors leading to stress in employees. The research was taken in one of the leading and famous retail outlet of the Jammu. The study revealed by using the percentage and graphical analysis technique that most stressful type of work is that which includes excessive demands and pressures that are not matched with employee’s knowledge and abilities. The result of the study also found that by changing the work environment, and techniques such as motivation, could be helpful in reducing their stress levels and working environment must be adequate to make a healthy and safe environment for the employees.