International Journal of Peace ,Education and Development
Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Conflict in Identity of UN Military Peacekeepers: A Probable Cause for the Persistence of SEA
Abstract:

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) have been plagued by cases of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) since the 1990s. Despite the deep disgrace that these cases have brought to the international community, fresh allegations continue to be unearthed even in 2018. Such occurrences mar the recovery of the people from the trauma of conflict and create fresh problems in their wake. This paper examines perpetration of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) by UN military peacekeepers, as a result of their identity being limited to that of their nation and their inability to embrace an international identity due to a variety of systemic factors. The national identity of the military personnel proves to be an obstacle to their internalization of the standards of conduct of the UN, which leads to the persistence of SEA. This paper argues that since the troops identify with their national identity on an international mission in a foreign soil, they do not feel beholden to the values and ethics of the international organization that they represent. Not that the national identity propagates SEA, but the roles of a traditional army and a UN Peacekeeping mission, are often at odds with each other. While the former trains you for war and a paternalistic protection of the nation’s citizens, the latter expects you to maintain peace among foreign communities. The paper also examines the idea of ‘militarized masculinity’ as proposed by feminists, as an integral element of a national military identity, which continues to inform a military official’s actions even as a peacekeeper. The paper lays emphasis on the nature of pre-deployment training as a cause for the inadequate formation of an international and impartial identity. The punitive actions taken in case of a substantiated allegation of SEA and the presence of national authority even during decision making on ground, in a UNPKO, strengthen the national identity of a troop member. These factors then act as obstacles in the formation of an identity that is in accordance with the UN principles, and thereby contribute to the persistence of SEA even in 2018.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Enhancing Nonviolent Footprints for the Culture of Peace and Nonviolence
Abstract:

At a time when societies across the world are facing conflicts at different level like societal, individual etc there is an emergent need to nurture techniques and approaches which would promote nonviolent resolution of conflicts. Coercive methods of resolving conflicts result in win-lose situations. This results in disenchantment and continuation of discontentment. In this context, resolution of conflicts through nonviolent means offers important approach to conflict resolution so that the result outcome is more often a win-win situation. Building and sustaining cultures of peace does not mean eliminating violence. Humans cannot deny their role in the uprising of global violence. They also cannot blame it on only several people- the spread of violence shows that we all have played a role in contributing to the gruesome state of the world today. The challenge for building a culture of peace, therefore, becomes how such debate is expressed and managed. In order to help people to measure their Nonviolent Footprints, the need of the hour is to propel a NONVIOLENT LITERACY MISSION. The Mission should be to incessantly work to explore the goodness in people and be a catalyst to become part of a nonviolent action force. Nonviolent Literacy entails critical understanding and learning of the art and science of nonviolence, imbibe the spirit of nonviolence and exhibit nonviolent practices in our daily lives.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
The Role of Nonviolent Communication in Teambuilding in Youth Volunteer Groups
Abstract:

In the backdrop of increasing individualism in our society, youth volunteer groups face challenges of working as a team. In such a scenario nonviolent communication if practiced by youth groups can go a long way in promoting teambuilding and enhance their effectiveness. This chapter explores through perspectives of youth leaders who are working on different social issues tries to highlight the efficacy of integrating nonviolent communication in the working of youth volunteer groups.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
An Analysis of the Zero Tolerance Immigration Policy of the United States vis-à-vis UN Conventions
Abstract:

The immigration issue was at the center-stage of Republican Candidate Donald Trump’s Presidential campaign in 2016 US elections. From 2017, the Trump administration began rewriting the US immigration policy to deter immigration. On 7 May 2018, the administration imposed “Zero Tolerance” policy to prosecute all illegal immigrants, including people applying for asylum which led to the separation of families. The bleak logic behind the family separation policy was that separation will act as a deterrent for future immigration. Inspite of massive deportations, detention and other harsh measures, USA failed to stem the flow of immigrants from the Central American countries-El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. The policy was revoked on 21 June 2018 following an intense backlash from all sides for the violation of human rights and the rights of the children. The research paper seeks to answer the question: Is Zero Tolerance policy adopted by the Trump administration in consonance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the UN Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees? In the course of answering this question, the paper also addresses the debate around the identity of people entering the US as identifying them as refugees or immigrants will have different political implications in devising immigration policy. The paper also analyses the implications of the policy on the psychology and identity of the immigrant children.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Children Taking the Lead in Environmental Protection for Peace
Abstract:

As the world is facing degradation of the ecosystem and suffering from the effects of climate change, it is time humankind wake up to the realities of imminent disaster. While people seem to race towards crass materialism unmindful of the destruction of the environment, it is time that children take the lead to negotiate the challenges of ecological degradation. Children are the worst sufferers of environmental degradation and as future leaders they can play a pivotal role in sensitizing adults on the need to adopt sustainable lifestyle and thereby contributing to sustainable peace. This chapter through perspectives of children from different countries will aim to underscore their concerns and the solution they are looking at.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Women and Freedom of Speech: Considering Gender Equality in Freedom of Speech
Abstract:

The ideals of freedom of speech and equality are both essential for a democratic, liberal society. The power relations that prevail greatly affect the dominant discourse and ideology in the society, and the extent of freedom of speech and expression given to different groups conversely affects the power relations in the society. Gender is one of the major areas where power relations have played a significant role. The patriarchal culture has perpetuated ways of thinking which assume male dominance as natural, and violence towards women as a legitimate expression of this dominance. The violence here does not have to be looked at in its narrow sense of physical violence, but in its broader sense of physical, emotional and psychological violence. It would translate as taking into account the ‘power’ women as a group have to make changes in their society. A prerequisite for making such changes that challenge the status quo, is being heard- and being heard as individuals who have a legitimate authority to speak. Even though the world has come a long way, and women have more rights and freedom than they did a few centuries ago, the freedom at best remains hypocritical- prescribed in theory, but not practiced in actuality. This paper takes the freedom of speech and expression as one of the significant areas where the freedom of women is at best limited and attempts to understand what it means for the gender power relations in society. It also seeks to recognize the reason why this pattern is so difficult to break. The paper is accordingly divided into two subsections: ‘Gender and Speech’ which traces the relation between women and speech in the context of a gender unequal society; and ‘Speech and Law’ which examines the role political legitimation plays in carrying forward the status quo.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Taking Education for Peace (EFP) Forward - Means and Possible Interventions among Secondary School Students
Abstract:

“A candle loses none of its light by lighting another candle.”- Thomas Jefferson. ‘Education for peace’ stands on four pillar mainly peace concepts, peace initiatives, peace values and peace skills. There are plenty of things said and initiated too, but there are few who stand for its values and carry forward with the apt skills that one need to possess and become ambassadors of peace. If we want to see education for peace actively functioning, that it should begin from every one of us and surely to achieve the crown being our best here on earth or thereafter as like noble laureates immortal. EFP calls for change of mind set, change in attitudes improve skills, approaches and living in harmony with oneself and with others. This paper discusses means and possible interventions of EFP within the system of education set up and analyses the peace values and peace skills among the secondary schools of Karnataka in the student perspective. Hence taking education for peace (EFP) forward is individual and collective responsibility.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
Pre-service teacher’s Skilfulness for the wellbeing of CWSN in Inclusive Education
Abstract:

Educating children with and without abilities together in the formal set up schools is known as inclusive education. Steady progress has been made to integrate students with disabilities into general schools rather than total segregation. The teacher education is hasn’t open up enough to prepare for it. The present paper is an attempt to indicate where does inclusive education stands with regard to its pre-service teacher’s preparedness in other words how skilful are they to handle children with diverse nature either positively or negatively. Beside that to check on the scope for such skilful learning through their syllabus and teaching practices. If the in-service teachers are already making a slow effort which need to be accelerate as the student’s number of CWSN is on rise in general schools, as every child need to be welcomed into the portals of education. There are number of ways where teachers in general education could be prepared to meet the needs of CWSN. Pre-service teachers need to be much more skilful to handle these issues. How a teacher need to be skilful to handle those children who equally require time, space and care for learning along with those who are in the general school upbringing. It is likely that the student may experience segregation even in regular schools, unless teachers themselves build a welcoming personality towards the wellbeing of these CWSN. This is need of the hour that teachers are prepared with both knowledge and ability to be fit into inclusive setup schools. We as a country India have embraced inclusive education beside the diversity and disability. Educators or teachers need to prepare for the wellbeing of CWSN in inclusive education.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
A Study on the Influence of Television Shows (Reality Shows, Science Fiction shows and Sports Television Shows) on Control-Beliefs
Abstract:

The issue of media influence continues to be a growing cause for concern in today. It is seen by many as both an increasing burden causing body image distortion and also as a pathway to psychological illness such as low self esteem, depression and eating disorders. The aim of this research is to explore the influence of watching television series like reality television shows, science fiction and sports television shows on control beliefs. The study, conducted in Mizoram, consists of 30 samples between the age group of 16 to 20. After filling out the demographic sheet and the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS), the results of the study revealed that gender differences exists among viewers of reality, science-fiction and sports television series in their control belief. The results also reveal that there is no significant relationship between viewers of reality, science fiction and sports television series with regard to their control beliefs.

Category - Research Article
Download PDF
Title:
A Study Quality on Intervention of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) Mission at Government High School in Aizawl City
Abstract:

The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is a flagship scheme of Government of India, started from the year 2009, to enhance access to secondary education and improve its quality. The present study was taken up in Government Secondary Schools in Aizawl City. Focus was given to quality intervention of RMSA. It was found from the study that cent percent schools under study have owned land and building. Rain harvesting system was installed by only 61.54% of the school. The investigator further found that 84.62% of the school could provide drinking water facilities for students. Recurring grants such as maintenance and remedial teaching grants were received by all schools. SMDC was found set up by every schools under study and members were also given training for effective delivery of their roles and responsibilities. The investigator found that District Education Officer (DEO) was the real operational supervisor in the study area while District Project Coordination (DPC) of RMSA supervised only the works related to RMSA interventions.