International Journal of Bioresource Science
Category - Research Article
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Title:
Food insecurity and climatic change in Southern Region of Nigeria: An environmental health analysis
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of flood disaster due to climate change on food security of flood disaster victims in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria. A sample of 120 people drawn from 34 local government areas of the affected communities was selected using simple random sampling. A Structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection, using a design time survey design. The results revealed that there was food insecurity as a result of destruction of the crops by flood and lack of land to cultivate since most of the lands were flooded. This resulted to malnutrition, hunger, and poverty. It was revealed that through extension workers, the problem of food insecurity could be reduced in these areas. Based on these findings recommendations were made, among which was that the government should use Extension Workers to distribute food and drugs to the affected areas to improve their health and food security.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Prospects of developing pre-mature flowering resistant tossa jute (C. olitorius) variety for early March and onwards sowing
Abstract:

Jute is generally cultivated during the months of April-July and the crop is followed by aman /kharif paddy cultivation. In most cases jute seed is sown based on onset of nor’westers or westerly winds which are not usually anticipated in time. Therefore, the cultivators have to face a dilemma in regard to pre-mature flowering under early sowing and pre-mature harvesting of his crop before paddy cultivation under late sowing. In such a situation, development of jute crop highly resistant to pre-mature flowering for early March to mid-March sowing without any risk of pre-mature flowering is considered to be a new breeding objective.Not only this, the issue of fitting the jute crop in a schedule of intercropping with green gram etc., where the latter crops need to be harvested before monsoon break, a jute variety needs to be preferably sown in the 1st week of March .

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Molecular diversity of organophosphorus degrading bacteria from different field soils
Abstract:

Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from insecticide treated tomato, brinjal maize and ground nut rhizospheric soils by enriching Mineral Salt Medium broth with supplement of chlorpyrifos, Phorate source. These isolates were characterized on the basis of cell morphology, cultural and biochemical properties. Among the eight chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates, CDB-1isolate utilized the more pesticide. Among the eight phorate degrading bacterial isolates, the Phorate degrading bacteria (PDB)-1 isolate utilized the pesticide (Phorate) effectively. Degrading efficiency of isolates was determined by measuring the chlorpyrifos, phorate residual concentrations at intervals using Gas chromatographic method. Among the molecular diversity of 16 organophosphorus pesticide degrading isolates viz., chlorpyrifos degrading isolates 8, phorate degrading isolates 8 were also studied by PCR-RAPD technique. CDB7 shows separate lane with 26 per cent similarity compared to other isolates. CDB5 isolate shows 29 per cent similar when compared with other samples. CDB3 and CDB4 reveal same genetic relatedness according to dendrogram. CDB2 and CDB6 showed 54 percent similarity and CDB1 shows 41 percent similarity. CDB3 and CDB4 isolates are more or less similar in the genome and functional properties. Whereas, CDB7 isolate was highly diverse among other isolates.. PDB5 and PDB6 showed 55 per cent similar in coefficient scale. Whereas PDB2 and PDB3 revealed 75 per cent relatedness. The other isolates, PDB1, PDB7 and PDB4 shows 64-66 per cent similar. The PDB8 was highly diverse from remaining other seven isolates. PDB2 and PDB3 showed similar genome and functional properties.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
An economic analysis of crop diversification under inorganic and organic farming in West Bengal
Abstract:

The Indian food basket is diversifying in favour of high value food commodities like fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry products and fish products from staple food such as rice, wheat and coarse cereals since the nineties of the 20th century. This raises a challenge to Indian agriculture. On the other hand, dominance of chemical based mono-cropping results soil erosion, water contamination, pesticides poisoning, land degradation through water logging and soil salinity, depletion of bio-diversity, etc. This again raises another challenge to Indian agriculture. Organic farming system may generate such situation to address both the challenges mentioned above. So, attempt has been taken to find out the performance of organic farming, addressing the crop diversification at different level of farm sizes along with different crop growing seasons in West Bengal. To measure the extent and nature of crop diversification, Herfindahl Index (H.I.) and Modified Entropy Index (M.E.I.) have been worked out. The result showed that maximum crop diversification occurred in sub-marginal farms and small farms under inorganic and organic farming system, respectively. On the other hand, rabi season exhibited prominent crop diversification in both inorganic and organic farms due to comparative advantages of residual moisture availability in soil. The estimation highlighted that crop diversification facilitated higher cropping intensity followed by higher net farm income of small and marginal households in West Bengal. The analysis concluded that availability of market and price premium influenced more diversion of area towards vegetables, in organic farms.