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Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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Title:
Finding a Unified Field Theory for Instruction: Utilizing Case Studies to Engage Deeper Learning About Complex Issues
Abstract:

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Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 882
Title:
Impact of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Scheme on Input Use: An Economic Analysis of Non-Basmati Rice Crop
Abstract:

The Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme implemented for fulfilling the short term credit need of farmers was assessed for its impact on non-basmati rice production in R.S. Pura block of Jammu district. The primary data were collected by interviewing the Kisan credit Card holders as well as non-holders directly through pre-tested schedule. The farmers were categorised into small, medium and large farmers and economics of non-basmati rice crop was estimated. Two criteria were applied for assessing the impact of KCC scheme on non-basmati rice cultivation; firstly, a comparison was made between KCC and non-KCC holders and secondly, a comparison of data from same farms was made pre and post use credit drawn under KCC. The total cost of non-basmati rice cultivation was found to be higher in case of KCC beneficiaries by 5.78 per cent as compared to non-KCC beneficiaries. The productivity, net profit, farm business income, farm labour income of non-basmati rice was also higher in case of KCC beneficiaries by 7.97, 2.41, 1.95 and 3.10 per cent respectively as compared to non-KCC beneficiaries. The cost of all the inputs of non-basmati rice has shown significant difference between farms of KCC and non-KCC beneficiaries. The total cost of non-basmati rice, after drawing and using credit under KCC increased by 25.35 per cent whereas the productivity and net profit increased by 10.90 and 52.42 per cent respectively. The results indicate significant improvement in expenditure on input use, yield and profitability of non-basmati rice after use of credit under KCC scheme.

Category - Research Article
[Number 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 874
Title:
Economic Scenario of Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition in India
Abstract:

India is the second most populous country in the world with an estimated 1.2 billion people and the third largest economy by GDP. India was classified as a (lower) middle-income country by the World Bank in 2012. Hunger, malnutrition, hidden hunger and poverty all are related to each other. Poverty is considered to be the main cause of malnutrition and hunger, however rich people still found to be malnourished. In developing countries like India, children and adults are vulnerable to malnutrition because of low dietary intakes, infectious diseases, lack of appropriate care and inequitable distribution of food within the household. Three standard indices of physical growth that describe the nutritional status of children are Height-for-age (stunting), Weight-for-height (wasting), and Weight-for-age (underweight). The incidence of poverty declined from 45.3% in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05 and further to 21.9% in 2011-12. The percentage of persons below the Poverty Line in 2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7% in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas and 21.9% for the country as a whole. The respective ratios for the rural and urban areas were 41.8% and 25.7% and 37.2% for the country as a whole in 2004-05. It was 50.1% in rural areas, 31.8% in urban areas and 45.3% for the country as a whole in 1993-94. In 2011-12, India had 270 million persons below the Tendulkar Poverty Line as compared to 407 million in 2004-05, that is a reduction of 137 million persons over the seven year period.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 867
Title:
Adoption of Improved Goat keeping Practices in Jalaun District of U.P.
Abstract:

Goat rearing is the traditional means of sustaining income, employment and family health among rural poorers. Now days goat rearing is emerge as a beneficial business among farmers. The goats are mostly rear in rainfed and undulated areas of country. Among these areas Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and their district Jalaun is best suited for goat rearing due to their geographical situation. On this background a study regarding ground realities of goat keepers and goat keeping practices was plan during 2014. For this purpose Jalaun district was purposively selected and datas were collected form 120 goat keepers. The findings of the study show that majority of the goat keepers belong to backward class group. The literacy level was found high with average land holding 1.62 h. Goat rearing contribute about 20 percent contribution in total family income. The flock size was about 18 goats among marginal farmers which was just double from small, medium farmers group. The goat keepers having medium adoption level regarding improved practices of goat rearing. Goat keepers were poor in adopting health care hygiene and breeding related knowledge. The association between extent of adoption and attributes of goat keepers were found independent to each other.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 862
Title:
Marketing costs and Price Spread Analysis for Citrus in Samba district of Jammu region
Abstract:
The present study made a detailed analysis of citrus fruit by studying its marketing costs and price spread which is the important researchable issue for the said crop in Samba district. The marketing chain of three types mainly Producer ? Forwarding/ Commission agent ? Retailer ? Consumer, Producer ? Retailer ? Consumer and Producer Consumer were followed in the sample area. The average per quintal marketing cost at producers’ level varied to the extent of ` 438.65, ` 264.00 and ` 226.67 per quintal  fchannel I, II and III, respectively. The average per quintal marketing cost borne by the retailer was found to be ` 30.95 and ` 19.40 in channel I and II, respectively whereas in channel III whole of the marketing cost i.e., ` 226.67 was borne by the producer as there was the direct marketing of produce. As far as the price spread analysis is concerned, the per quintal net price received by the producer was about ` 945.90, ` 1036.00 and ` 1073.33 which was about 44.00 per cent, 51.29 per cent and 82.56 per cent of the price paid by the consumer for channel I, II and III, respectively. A comparison of different channels thus showed that producers’ share in the consumers’ rupee was the highest in case of channel III as compared to other channels. Where in the consumer also paid the lowest price i.e., ` 1300.00 per quintal in channel III as compared to ` 2150.00 per quintal and ` 2020.00 per quintal in channel I and II, respectively which revealed that direct sale from producer to ultimate consumer was beneficial for both producer and consumer. The channel-III with marketing efficiency 4.74 was most efficient followed by Channel-II (1.05) and channel-I (0.79).
Category - Research Article
[Number 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 860
Title:
Impact of improved technology of oat fodder production on farmers’ income
Abstract:

The economics of oat (cv. JHO -822) fodder production under improved package of practices was made over the farmers fields and analysed for the period Rabi 2010-11 in Muzaffarnagar, U.P. The technical knowhow was provided by the institute in growing the higher yield of oat fodder. For oat (JHO 822), the average total cost was found as ` 28201.4 per hectare. The average total working capital is found as ` 19385.3 per hectare. The total variable cost is found as ` 19966.9. The total fixed cost is found as ` 5670.76 per hectare. The share of variable cost in total cost is 70.80 percent. Thus the highest expenditure in percentage term is incurred on labour followed by manures and fertilizers and seed cost and draft power. The total expenses have increased by 13.6% in growing of oat (JHO-822) fodder crop with improved practices against the existing oat varieties. There is higher use of machine and labour mandays as the crop has given two cuttings in most of the fields. The green fodder yield was 18.68% higher and the cost of fodder produced reduced by 4.36 percent.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 821
Title:
Analysis of Rice Farming Competitiveness in Cote d’Ivoire: An application of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM)
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the improvement factors ofrice farming sector’s competitiveness in Côte d’Ivoire. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) methodology was used to determine the Competiveness basedon one hand on a sample of rice farmer’s areas and on the other hand on the consolidation of data relative to rice farming issues. As a whole, 190 actors have been chosen at random in four municipalities in the regions of Agneby-Tiassa and Lôh-Djiboua which are:Tassalé, N’douci, Divo, Sikensi. These actors were distributed as follows: 100 farmers, 40 processors, and 50 traders. The basic data have been collected through a structuredquestionnary phase, per category of actor. The second part of data has been especially collected from Technicalservices of the agriculturalministry, research offices and supervision. From the results, it emergesthat the domestic rice sector is competitive. This sector is financially and economically profitable. However, itis slightly protected. Even so, any policy which aims at improving rice production in Côte d’Ivoire requires an implementation of a powerful agricultural system through a best stratification of rice farming sector in order to improve thecompetitiveness of domestic rice farming which is facing the imported rice.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 817
Title:
Identifying Socio-Economic Features of Fish Farmers
Abstract:

A study of the socioeconomic conditions is a prerequisite for the suitable design and successful implementation of any project, training, demonstration or Governments’ developmental programmes. The present study was conducted to assess the socioeconomic characteristics namely education, employment, income levels from aquaculture and other farm and nonfarm activities of fish farmers of Jammu district, along with status of fish farming and livelihood of fish farmer. The numbers of fish farmers have been increasing due to awareness, fish demand and market price and different encouraging Govt. schemes. Data were collected with the help of well-structured questionnaire from the selected farmers of district Jammu was selected purposively for the study. The findings of the study showed that the majority of fish farmers are in middle age group, education up to middle level, medium family size with sufficient experience in aquaculture. They have medium level of social participation, smaller pond size with single ownership and low level of family income. These socio-economic characteristics of fish farmers must be taken into consideration while formulating, designing and implementing developmental programmes.

Category - Review Article
[Number 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 757
Title:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in Manipur: An Appraisal
Abstract:

The process of Community Mobilization especially in case of tribal community is not new. Tribal across the country have been supporting to each other in helping in construction of the house, sharing of contribution in happy and grief moment like marriage and death, sorting out problems of abduction of women, land dispute, kinship, ethical, etc by imposing social boycott of the guilty, expel from the village or by charging penalty. Village Chief, Mukhiya, Gameti who traditionally equipped in resolving of internal disputes. MGNREGS do not only promote community participation among the tribals but also support livelihood of such families which do not have substantial incomes round the year due to various reasons. It is obvious that tribals depend on primitive agriculture and forest resources which are no longer supporting them in the present circumstance to maintain livelihoods. This article makes analyses that due to implantation of MGNREGS in Churachandpur district of Manipur, the tribal participation in development process has improved in tune of mitigate unemployment and improve the living condition through developing infrastructure for common utilization. In the district an ordinary tribal family do not possess land as land belongs to village chief. The village chief by his own mercy involves somebody in agriculture on sharing basis. In the district, a couple of village chiefs came forward for plantation to avoid soil erosion with a common agenda. In addition to above assets like drainage, culvert and embankment have also been created under the scheme to over come with a problem of flood and soil erosion. The community as a whole feel that MGNREGS not only reduces problem of unemployment but tackle social unrest too. The representative of each household participates in the Gram Sabha which set planning and priorities the works. The process of social audit makes them equip with information and access to participate for common causes.

Category - Research Article
[Number 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 733
Title:
A Study of Temporal Changes in Land Use and Cropping Pattern in Jammu district of J&K State
Abstract:

The pattern of land use of a country, state and district at any particular time is determined by physical, economic and institutional framework taken together. Jammu district of the state which is significantly important in respect of agriculture production has again great variations in the factors influencing agricultural productivity and thus has been selected for the study. Jammu district is selected for extensive study both in time and space to understand the changes in the land use patterns. The district is agriculturally most efficient district of the region as such required investigation into different aspects of agriculture and land use planning. In this present study attempt has been made to evolve some aspects of changes in land use as well as cropping pattern in agriculture of Jammu district based on temporal analysis for the period of 1989-90 to 2005-06. The need of the present study arose mainly to search for the various factors responsible for bringing change in the agriculture of the district. Over the years major changes have occurred in the pattern of land use, cropping pattern, allocation of gross irrigated area etc. The study has been based on secondary sources of information. The secondary data on land utilization, number of land holdings, cropping pattern and production has been collected from the different issues of digest of statistics of Jammu and Kashmir government and village imminent directories of different development blocks of the district. In the study all development blocks has been taken as unit. The information about land use, land holding, cropping pattern and production of two different phases of a study years has been obtained by extensive investigation and processing of concerned data over the period 1989-90 and 2005-06. The analysis has been presented in tabular form and the study is mainly descriptive in nature. The comparison has been made over the time to examine the trends in land use pattern of area, production and productivity of major crops grown in all 11 developmental blocks of Jammu district in percentage.

Category - Review Article
[Number 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 719
Title:
Purpose-wise utilization pattern of agricultural credit in Rajasthan
Abstract:

The present study was conducted for examine the purpose-wise utilization pattern of agricultural credit in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. The study results revealed that the overall borrowed amount of credit was Rs.1,06,259. Out of which, 75.97 per cent (Rs. 80,730 was) utilized for stipulated purposes and the remaining 24.03 per cent (Rs. 25,529) was diverted to other purposes. It may be noted that the highest (94.79 per cent) amount of credit advanced was utilized for purchase of sprinkler system and the lowest (57.58 per cent) for crop production. The diversion of credit was found to be the highest for crop loans (42.42 per cent) and the lowest (5.21 per cent) for purchase of sprinkler system. Out of the total diverted amount of credit, 27.43 per cent (Rs. 7,003) was used for other productive purposes and 72.57 per cent (Rs. 18,526) was used for non-productive purposes. The study also revealed that 70.59 per cent of the farmer borrowers had completely utilized the credit for the stipulated purposes, 23.98 per cent had partially utilized and the remaining 5.43 per cent of the farmer borrowers had completely diverted the loan for other purposes.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 684
Title:
Strawberry Production for diversifying Agricultural Income: A Succcess Story from Samba district of J&K
Abstract:

This paper highlights the success story of Mr. Sham Singh, a commercial farmer who has been successfully integrated into the main stream economy through production and marketing of Strawberry along with vegetable and fruit production. This case study provides an insight of establishment of farming business and the road map he used in pursing his dream of becoming a commercial producer of strawberry, mango and vegetable production. The report highlights the lessons learned in the production, diversification, competitive and marketing strategies and how Sham Singh designed his farming operation to maximize the annual income from farming. The report ends with challenges that he is encountering and how he plans to address them. This success story will provide information that will be helpful for upcoming strawberry entrepreneurs.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 673
Title:
Assessment of Ideal Crop Geometry for Yield Improvement of French Bean during Rabi Season under Irrigated Medium Land Situation of Birbhum District
Abstract:

Cultivation of French bean is limited in the State of West Bengal and less work has been done on the cultivation aspects of French Bean. Therefore, it is the right time to give more emphasis on the evaluation of Plant Spacing and Plant Density for growth performance, yield potential and quality improvement. But, there is hardly any precise and conclusive information available on the on various physiological processes and productivity potential in French bean. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different Plant spacing and plant density i.e. the Crop Geometry on the Growth and yield parameters of French Bean. From the present investigation, it has been found out that less Plant population, wider Plant Spacing and less Plant density give a poorer yield of French Bean Green Pods. From the present Experiment, it can be noted that a Plant Spacing of 30 X 15 cm of the French Bean plants i.e. a plant Density of 22 Plants of French Bean per Square Meter may give an optimum Yield and Profit.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 666
Title:
Socio-Economic Analysis of Goat Rearing Farmers in Mahoba District of Bundelkhand
Abstract:
It is unfortunate that, Indian farmers are dying from hunger and malnutrition even though Indian economy based on agriculture. Out of other remedies goat rearing is a way to fight from poverty and providing nutrition to small and marginal farmers. A study was made to assess competitive advantage of rearing goat in the district of Mahoba between small marginal and large farmers. The aim of this study was to find out the socio-economic characteristics and economics of goat keepers in mahoba of Bundelkhand. The study was carried out in mahoba district during 2012. 45 per cent of respondents had average family size of 3 to5 persons, 35 per cent respondents had average family size of 1 to 3 persons and 20 per cent had family size of 5 to 10 persons. 33 per cent and 24 per cent respectively had intermediate and high school level of education. 8 per cent respondents were illiterate. Agriculture was the main occupation and so as the source of income too. Most of the farmers had more than fifteen years of farming experience. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were found to be significantly related to dairy management practices. The capital investment per goat was highest on large farms (` 772.01/year), followed by marginal farms (` 763.17/year) and small goat keepers (` 733.36/year). The margin of profit on large farms was highest. The overall return over cost A (paid out expenses and depreciation) was ` 3186.21, over cost B (cost A + interest on fixed capital) was ` 3093.65 and over cost C (cost B + input value of family labour) was ` 1635.32.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 663
Title:
An Overview of Fisheries and Aquaculture in India
Abstract:

Fisheries play an important role in the world economy and food for million. All over the world, more than 30 million fishers and fish farmers and their families gain their livelihoods from fisheries. Globally, fish provide about 16 per cent of the animal protein consumed by humans, and are a valuable source of minerals and essential fatty acids. Although, wild fishery resources are in practice finite for production purposes. If they are overexploited, production declines and may even collapse. What made possible the continuing rise in overall fish production is the rapid growth of aquaculture. Global fish production has grown steadily in the last five decades with food fish supply increasing at an average annual rate of 3.2 per cent, outpacing world population growth at 1.6 per cent. Capture fisheries and aquaculture supplied the world with about 158.0 million tonnes of fish in 2012 of which 91.3 million tonnes was from capture fishery and 66.6 million tonnes from aquaculture. In the same year, total production of India was 8.66 million tonnes which included 3.372 million tonnes from capture fishery and 5.294 million tonnes from aquaculture and noticed increase at an annual rate of 5.2 percent in compare to population growth rate at 1.3%.India’s export earnings increased rapidly and almost doubled within 6 years i.e. 8363.52 crores in 2006-07 to 16597.23 crores in 2011-12. In this study, statistical analysis of fish production was done against the world to estimate its growth in compare to world.