Renu Publishers

Agro Economist- An International Journal
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Contents AgroEconomist June 2017

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Effect of Agro-economic Variables on Disbursement of Agricultural Credit in Bihar
Abstract:

The agricultural production process is biological in nature and has a comparatively long transition period, resulting in a wide time gap between investment and income. For the long production and marketing period, the available fund with the farmers is not found sufficient. Credit requirement of the farmers has increased manifold in Bihar particularly because of using more and more of purchased inputs i.e. high yielding variety seeds, fertilizer, irrigation, micro nutrients, pesticides etc. The study is based on time series data of Bihar for a period of 25 years that is from 1980-81 to 2005-06. It is found that association between agricultural credit flow and different variables as the percentage area under HYV, percentage area under irrigation, percentage area under noncereal crops, fertilizer consumption per hectare and no of PACS per 1000 villages, land holding and agricultural labour use was positive.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Role of Floriculture Sector in Livelihood Security of Small Scale Family Farming in Intermediate Region of Jammu
Abstract:

The study was conducted in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir state (J&K) with 30 marigold growers to examine the production practices being practised. Ten flower growing farmers were selected randomly each from three blocks of the district for the collection of primary data by personal interview schedule method. The results revealed that majority of the farmers were young having age less than 45 years and are matriculate. The main occupation of majority (73.33%) of the respondents was flower farming with crop production and animal husbandry enterprises. Flower farming as a sole source of occupation was practised by none of the farmers. The average quantity of urea, DAP and MOP applied by the flower farmers was 0.84, 0.38 and 0.24 q/ha, respectively that was far less than recommendations. Very less number of farmers know about the diseases in marigold crop whereas only 13.3% farmers have knowledge of sucking pests and 10 percent each know about leaf eaters and stem borer insects. This study recommends that for encouraging results to improve farmer’s socioeconomic condition, increase self-employment opportunity and to promote entrepreneurship as potential tool for poverty alleviation, more number of extension training programmes and exposure visits of the floriculturists should be organised on regular intervals.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
An Economic Analysis of Sorghum Seed Production: A Profitable Enterprise for Farmers
Abstract:

Sorghum is an important fodder crop of summer and rainy season and suitable for silage making. It is the fast growing crop and can provide two-three fodder cuttings. the economics of sorghum seed production crop (cv. MP Chari) was analysed for the period Kharif 2010-11, Kharif 2011-12 and Kharif 2012-13 in IGFRI, Jhansi to inform the farmers about the profitability of seed production process. The highest cost was incurred on harvesting and pooling of mature crop. The average total expenditure incurred on that was 4933.3 and it was 17.28 percent of total cost. The average total working capital was found as ` 19073.3 per hectare ( 66.82% of total cost) and total variable cost is ` 19645.5 which is 68.82 percent of total cost. The average total cost is found as ` 28544.1 per hectare. The average total labour man days used per hectare are 84.64. The average total expenditure incurred on labour is ` 12120.28 (42.46 %) which is found as highest expenditure in total cost. The highest expenditure in percentage term is incurred on labour followed by manures, draft power and seed cost. On per hectare basis the average quality seed production was 857.00 kilogram. The average rate of quality seed was ` 35 per kilogram. The total return was found as ` 51899.41 per hectare. The average net return is ` 22161.33 per hectare. The average benefit cost ratio at is found as 1.72. The cost of production of seed when only main product quality seed only) was considered for selling was ` 35.11 per kilogram of seed. The cost of production of seed when both main product (quality seed only) and other by products (dry fodder, rejected seed etc.) was considered for selling was ` 11.18 per kilogram of seed. Thus, it is clear from the study that seed production of sorghum is highly profitable and has wide market available for it.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Resource Use Efficiency of Major Field Crops in Reasi District of Jammu Region of Jammu and Kashmir State
Abstract:

The present investigation conducted in the Reasi district of J&K state during the year 2015 has observed that the sample holding under study area comprise maize-wheat cropping system. By using Cobb-Douglas production function it is predicted that resource used in maize and wheat production like human labour, farmyard manure + fertilizer are underutilized indicating that there is further scope to increase their quantity which in turn will boost the returns. On the basis of regression analysis the value of regression coefficient of wheat for human labour, seed, FYM, urea, DAP and plant protection measures was 0.859, -0.321, 0.002, 0.067, 0.009 and 0.004 and for maize it was 0.522, -0.046, 0.095, 0.046, 0.016 and -0.015, respectively, which were found to be statistically significant. The positive sign indicated that one percent increase in the use of these inputs could increase the returns from crop. The negative sign shows that one percent additional expenditure on these inputs would reduce the return of crops. The marginal value productivity of farmyard manure and human labour of dry land wheat was positive and it was 0.312 and 1.231, respectively. This indicates that there still existed a scope to invest more on farmyard manure and human labour. The negative marginal value productivity estimated for seed at ` -5.150 showed that use of seed was more than optimum leading to fall in returns with each additional unit of this input. As far as maize is concerned, positive marginal value productivity of FYM, human labour, urea, DAP and pesticide indicates that there still existed a scope to invest more on these inputs. The negative marginal value productivity estimated for seed at ` -1.192 showed that use of seed was more than optimum leading to fall in returns with each additional unit of this input. The crop production function for wheat and maize with R2 value at 0.74 and 0.87, respectively was statistically significant meaning thereby that 74% of wheat and 87% of maize production of this area was being explained by the mentioned variables in the study.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Marketing Channels, Marketing Cost, Margin and Producer’s Share in Consumer’s Rupee in Paddy Marketing
Abstract:

The marketing of paddy covers a vast spectrum of activities including all the functions and processes involved in the movement of the produce from the point of production to the point of consumption. The district Etah, Uttar Pradesh was selected purposively for the research work. Four market channels were selected for the study of marketing channels, marketing costs, margins and producer’s share in consumer’s rupee with the help of available data and information. In Channel-I, the producer had paid ` 16 per quintal in the form of transportation, weighing, loading and unloading etc. In channel-II, III and IV, the charges born by village traders, wholesalers and retailers were ` 178.00, 169.10 and 143.10 per quintal in respective channels. The marketing margins obtained by different agencies were ` 158.00, 133.00 and 113.00 in case of channel-II, III and IV respectively. The consumer’s price was ` 871.50, ` 852.60 and 846.80 per quintal in case of respective channels. The marketing charges, margins and the consumers had purchased price were highest in channel-II followed by channel-III and channel-IV. It was because of the fact that higher number of intermediaries were involved in channel-II. The marketing efficiency index of channel-IV was highest as compared to the channel-III and channel-II. It showed that the channel–IV most efficient. The producer’s share was found highest in case of channel-IV, where the number of intermediaries were lesser. The channel-IV had been found to be the most efficient and suitable to the farmers.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022: A Critical Appraisal
Abstract:

The programme of Doubling Farmers’ Income was announced by the Finance Minister, Mr. Arun Jaitley during his budget speech on February 29, 2016. The targeted year that has been set by the govt. for doubling the farmers income is 2022 i.e. from 2015-16 to 2021-22 (Six years) with the objective to double the real income of farmers, not output or value added or the GDP of the agriculture sector. Targeted income includes income from agricultural as well as allied activities. The level of farmers’ income and year to year fluctuations in it are a major source of agrarian distress which is spreading and getting severe over time impacting almost half of the population of the country that is dependent on farming for livelihood. It can cause serious adverse effect on the future of agriculture in the country. To secure future of agriculture and also to improve livelihood, adequate attention needs to be given to improve the welfare of farmers and raise agricultural income. Achieving the goal of Doubling Farmers’ income by 2022 help to reduce persistent disparity between farm and non-farm income, alleviate agrarian distress, promote inclusive growth and infuse dynamism in agriculture sector. It will also attract youth towards farming profession and ease the pressure on non-farm jobs.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Study of Retailer’s Satisfaction towards Distribution Channel of Amul Products in Jammu
Abstract:

The research paper entitled “Study of retailer’s satisfaction towards distribution channel of AMUL products in Jammu” has been conducted in Jammu in which the retailers and distributors were selected at different places in Jammu city through convenience sampling. The information from various retail shops and distributors were collected with the help of well structured pre-tested schedule and the data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, pie charts, per centages. In this study two distribution channels of AMUL products in Jammu were identified viz. (I) Company → C/F → Distributer → Retailer → Consumer and (II) Company → C/F → AMUL retail outlet → Consumer.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Transformation of Agriculture in Jha
Abstract:

The study on “Transformation in agriculture in Jharkhand” revealed that the cropping pattern has shifted from lower value crop to high value crops in the state. The area under paddy crop is declining continuously, but acreage under wheat crop is increasing in the state. The study further shows that the minor millets crops area is declining in the state continuously and reached to a negligible level. The performance of pulses and oil seeds crops are improving year after year as indicated by increase in area, production and productivity in the state. The vegetable crop’s area has contributed significant in cropping pattern showing nearly 11% during 2012-13 which was near about 7% in year 2000. The fruit acreage has also increased during 2000 to 2012 in the state. The rate of growth was near about three times in the state during this period. It was also found that there have been significant changes in consumption of chemical fertilizers (NPK) in the state showing near about three times higher from the base year 2001. The consumption of NPK was about 85 Kg, 30 Kg., and about 9.0 Kg. per hectare of cropped area making total 124 kg. The farmers also prefer high yielding varieties and hybrid varieties of any crop in the state. The milk production has also increased from about 9.5 lakh ton to near about 18 lakh tons during 2002-03 to 2012-13. Similarly, the fish production has strongly increased during 2001-02 to 2013-14 which is nearly more than five times from the base period (2001-02). The improved technology in agriculture has considerably increased the total food grain production in the state. On the whole, it is clearly indicated that technology transformation in agriculture has been taken place in the state.