Renu Publishers

Agro Economist- An International Journal
Category - Review Article
Title:
Agriculture Innovation System Approach for Sustainable Agriculture Development: A Review
Abstract:

With the change in context of agricultural development, the innovation approaches has also changed. Different approaches namely National Agricultural Research System (NARS), Agriculture Knowledge and Information System (AKIS), farmer first and last, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are/have come up to mitigate rapid changes over the years. The present agricultural research efforts are failing to bring about the social and economic transformations due to one or the other reasons. To cope, compete and survive in emerging challenges, it becomes necessary to develop new approaches. In this context, the concept of Agriculture Innovation System (AIS) approach offers a new framework for analyzing the role of science and technology and their interaction with other actors to generate goods and services. It recognizes the importance of certain types of relationships and linkages for information flow in ever-changing biophysical and social environments. There are some success stories of Agricultural Innovation System in the developing and the developed countries namely shrimp farming and small scale food processing in Bangladesh, medicinal plants and Vanilla sectors in India, Pineapple and Cassava processing sectors in Ghana and production and marketing of agricultural commodities by U.K Co-operatives in United Kingdom. Thus, the innovation is viewed in a social and economic sense and not purely as a discovery and invention. The concept of an innovation has guided a more holistic approach to planning knowledge production and use.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
A Study of Temporal Changes in Land Use and Cropping Pattern in Jammu district of J&K State
Abstract:

The pattern of land use of a country, state and district at any particular time is determined by physical, economic and institutional framework taken together. Jammu district of the state which is significantly important in respect of agriculture production has again great variations in the factors influencing agricultural productivity and thus has been selected for the study. Jammu district is selected for extensive study both in time and space to understand the changes in the land use patterns. The district is agriculturally most efficient district of the region as such required investigation into different aspects of agriculture and land use planning. In this present study attempt has been made to evolve some aspects of changes in land use as well as cropping pattern in agriculture of Jammu district based on temporal analysis for the period of 1989-90 to 2005-06. The need of the present study arose mainly to search for the various factors responsible for bringing change in the agriculture of the district. Over the years major changes have occurred in the pattern of land use, cropping pattern, allocation of gross irrigated area etc. The study has been based on secondary sources of information. The secondary data on land utilization, number of land holdings, cropping pattern and production has been collected from the different issues of digest of statistics of Jammu and Kashmir government and village imminent directories of different development blocks of the district. In the study all development blocks has been taken as unit. The information about land use, land holding, cropping pattern and production of two different phases of a study years has been obtained by extensive investigation and processing of concerned data over the period 1989-90 and 2005-06. The analysis has been presented in tabular form and the study is mainly descriptive in nature. The comparison has been made over the time to examine the trends in land use pattern of area, production and productivity of major crops grown in all 11 developmental blocks of Jammu district in percentage.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Economic Scenario of Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition in India
Abstract:

India is the second most populous country in the world with an estimated 1.2 billion people and the third largest economy by GDP. India was classified as a (lower) middle-income country by the World Bank in 2012. Hunger, malnutrition, hidden hunger and poverty all are related to each other. Poverty is considered to be the main cause of malnutrition and hunger, however rich people still found to be malnourished. In developing countries like India, children and adults are vulnerable to malnutrition because of low dietary intakes, infectious diseases, lack of appropriate care and inequitable distribution of food within the household. Three standard indices of physical growth that describe the nutritional status of children are Height-for-age (stunting), Weight-for-height (wasting), and Weight-for-age (underweight). The incidence of poverty declined from 45.3% in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05 and further to 21.9% in 2011-12. The percentage of persons below the Poverty Line in 2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7% in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas and 21.9% for the country as a whole. The respective ratios for the rural and urban areas were 41.8% and 25.7% and 37.2% for the country as a whole in 2004-05. It was 50.1% in rural areas, 31.8% in urban areas and 45.3% for the country as a whole in 1993-94. In 2011-12, India had 270 million persons below the Tendulkar Poverty Line as compared to 407 million in 2004-05, that is a reduction of 137 million persons over the seven year period.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Impact of improved technology of oat fodder production on farmers’ income
Abstract:

The economics of oat (cv. JHO -822) fodder production under improved package of practices was made over the farmers fields and analysed for the period Rabi 2010-11 in Muzaffarnagar, U.P. The technical knowhow was provided by the institute in growing the higher yield of oat fodder. For oat (JHO 822), the average total cost was found as ` 28201.4 per hectare. The average total working capital is found as ` 19385.3 per hectare. The total variable cost is found as ` 19966.9. The total fixed cost is found as ` 5670.76 per hectare. The share of variable cost in total cost is 70.80 percent. Thus the highest expenditure in percentage term is incurred on labour followed by manures and fertilizers and seed cost and draft power. The total expenses have increased by 13.6% in growing of oat (JHO-822) fodder crop with improved practices against the existing oat varieties. There is higher use of machine and labour mandays as the crop has given two cuttings in most of the fields. The green fodder yield was 18.68% higher and the cost of fodder produced reduced by 4.36 percent.

Category - Review Article
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Title:
Purpose-wise utilization pattern of agricultural credit in Rajasthan
Abstract:

The present study was conducted for examine the purpose-wise utilization pattern of agricultural credit in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. The study results revealed that the overall borrowed amount of credit was Rs.1,06,259. Out of which, 75.97 per cent (Rs. 80,730 was) utilized for stipulated purposes and the remaining 24.03 per cent (Rs. 25,529) was diverted to other purposes. It may be noted that the highest (94.79 per cent) amount of credit advanced was utilized for purchase of sprinkler system and the lowest (57.58 per cent) for crop production. The diversion of credit was found to be the highest for crop loans (42.42 per cent) and the lowest (5.21 per cent) for purchase of sprinkler system. Out of the total diverted amount of credit, 27.43 per cent (Rs. 7,003) was used for other productive purposes and 72.57 per cent (Rs. 18,526) was used for non-productive purposes. The study also revealed that 70.59 per cent of the farmer borrowers had completely utilized the credit for the stipulated purposes, 23.98 per cent had partially utilized and the remaining 5.43 per cent of the farmer borrowers had completely diverted the loan for other purposes.

Category - Review Article
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Title:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in Manipur: An Appraisal
Abstract:

The process of Community Mobilization especially in case of tribal community is not new. Tribal across the country have been supporting to each other in helping in construction of the house, sharing of contribution in happy and grief moment like marriage and death, sorting out problems of abduction of women, land dispute, kinship, ethical, etc by imposing social boycott of the guilty, expel from the village or by charging penalty. Village Chief, Mukhiya, Gameti who traditionally equipped in resolving of internal disputes. MGNREGS do not only promote community participation among the tribals but also support livelihood of such families which do not have substantial incomes round the year due to various reasons. It is obvious that tribals depend on primitive agriculture and forest resources which are no longer supporting them in the present circumstance to maintain livelihoods. This article makes analyses that due to implantation of MGNREGS in Churachandpur district of Manipur, the tribal participation in development process has improved in tune of mitigate unemployment and improve the living condition through developing infrastructure for common utilization. In the district an ordinary tribal family do not possess land as land belongs to village chief. The village chief by his own mercy involves somebody in agriculture on sharing basis. In the district, a couple of village chiefs came forward for plantation to avoid soil erosion with a common agenda. In addition to above assets like drainage, culvert and embankment have also been created under the scheme to over come with a problem of flood and soil erosion. The community as a whole feel that MGNREGS not only reduces problem of unemployment but tackle social unrest too. The representative of each household participates in the Gram Sabha which set planning and priorities the works. The process of social audit makes them equip with information and access to participate for common causes.