Renu Publishers

Advances in Social Research
Category - Research Article
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Title:
Comparative Analysis of Groundnut Growing States in Western India
Abstract:

The research study entitled “Comparative analysis of groundnut growing states in Western India” is an attempt to determine the cost structure and changes in cost of cultivation and to identify which state in Western India is having comparative economic advantage in the production of groundnut. The study is based on secondary data collected from various published sources for the period under reference. Cost structure of the crop was analyzed by working out the share of each item of cost in total cost of cultivation. The changes in structure of cost of cultivation of groundnut over twenty years were assessed by comparing the cost structure of each crop during 2012-13 as compared to 1992-93. The states included in the study were Gujarat and Maharashtra. The results would help in planning the future strategies and policy direction for oilseed crop productivity in the states. Among the groundnut growing states, Gujarat state emerged with higher growth rate of 3.72 per cent per annum for the yield of groundnut during the period of 1992-93 to 2012-13. Gujarat state was found to have higher stability in the yield of groundnut, as the detrended cv (coefficient of variation) for the yield of groundnut was the lowest for Gujarat (2.17%). The total cost of cultivation of groundnut has increased in Gujarat by 567.21 per cent and in Maharashtra by 581.77 per cent during the study period. Over the years, the net income from groundnut has increased in Maharashtra by 1153.24 per cent and in Gujarat by 389.06 per cent.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
A Study of Status and Scenario of Retail Outlets of Biscuits of Britannia Industries Ltd.
Abstract:

The present investigation was conducted in Chandigarh city covering 25 sectors for analyzing sales network in which 300 retail outlets and distributors were selected through purposive sampling. The information from various retail outlets and distributors was collected with the help of structured questionnaire and the data was analyzed by using various statistical tools. Communication channel, distribution channel, and transaction channel were used towards market expansion. Out for 300 retail outlets only 205 were found active and 95 were found non active. Further sectors 21, 22, 44 and 47 have shown the 100 per cent active retail outlets and minimum active retail outlets have been found in sector 14 with 20 per cent followed by non active retail outlets in sector 15 with 13 per cent. The weekly total sale for Britannia biscuit products was worked out at ` 704800 with an average sale of ` 28000 and the highest sale of Britannia biscuit products was in sectors 22 and 44 with ` 75500 and ` 58400 respectively followed by the minimum sales at sector 14 and 19 with ` 5500 and ` 6500 respectively.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Technological Empowerment of Rural Women of Udaipur District (Rajasthan) in Animal Husbandry through SHGs
Abstract:

Women in rural India play a major role with regard to care and management of livestock. The present research was taken up to find out the technological empowerment of rural women with respect to animal husbandry technologies. The study was conducted in the villages of Udaipur district of Rajasthan with one government and one non-government organization having maximum number of SHGs formed under them. Total 20 SHGs (10 from each type of organization) were studied. To see the impact of SHGs on technological empowerment of members, a third group as a control was selected from adjoining villages of identified villages of GO and NGO (40 non-beneficiaries of each type). Interview schedule was used for data collection. It was encouraging to find that majority of beneficiaries from GO and NGO (72.22% and 71.11%, respectively) had good knowledge, whereas, almost all the non beneficiaries from GO and NGO had poor knowledge of animal husbandry technologies. Beneficiaries of both GO and NGO had highest knowledge in ‘clean milk production’, followed by ‘feeding’ and ‘housing’ with MPS (Mean per cent score) ranging from 73.33 to 91.11. The non beneficiaries exhibited very poor knowledge on all the aspects (MPS range 3.11 to 7.63) except for ‘clean milk production’ as the MPS ranged from 25.18 to 29.62. There was significant difference between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries with regard to their knowledge on animal husbandry. The beneficiaries had higher mean score of knowledge (17.65 and 18.23 for GO and NGO beneficiaries, respectively) as compared to non-beneficiaries (3.3). Among the beneficiaries from GO and NGO, there was no significant difference in their knowledge.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Attitude of Farmers Towards Developmental Activities of Agriculture Experimental Station NAU, Paria
Abstract:

Agriculture Experimental Station Paria came into existence in the year 1962 in Pardi taluka of Valsad district to test the feasibility of growing other crops instead of natural grasses. Initially, this station was run by the Department of Agriculture, Government of Gujarat. Later on, in 1972 this station was transferred to Gujarat Agricultural University. Now this research farm is working under Navsari Agricultural University from May, 2004. This region comes under South Gujarat Heavy Rainfall Agro-climate Zone-I. This zone comprises of whole of Dangs, Valsad, Navsari and parts of Surat district. The total geographical area of this zone is 9.59 lakh ha. This zone has been divided in to 4 Agro-ecological situations. The Agriculture Experimental Station (AES), Paria is situated in the Agro-ecological situation –II at 20O-27’ N latitude and 72O-57’ E longitude with an elevation of 10 meters above sea level. Basically, it is research oriented organization and at present about fifteen research projects are running with different mandates. Apart from this, one extension scheme i.e. vegetable and fruit crop demonstration scheme for tribal upliftment is also being undertaken for the farmers of the area. Farmers are advised at the station as well as on farmer's field. Besides this training programmes and demonstration are also organized by the station. Training to the students of agriculture like B. Sc.(Agri.), B.Sc.(Hort.), B.R.S. and Diploma (Krushi) etc. is undertaken. The scientists of AES, Paria are also actively engaged in organizing various farmer oriented programmes by Department of Agriculture and Department of Horticulture as well as other N.G.Os. Solving the agricultural problems of the farmers.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Attrition of Private and Public School Teachers: A Comparative Analysis
Abstract:

The study focused on the factors that influence teacher attrition decision in comparison between public and private institution. The study used descriptive research design. A total of 30 teachers participated in answering the survey questionnaires based from Herzberg Hygiene Theory. Descriptive analysis shows slight difference in the extent of how each factor influences teacher’s attrition decision. T-Test revealed a significant difference in the attrition between private and public school teachers (p = .000 < 0.05). This further implies that factors that influence attrition decision of the movers are different from those who came from private and public institution. Truly, teacher attrition burdens educational institutions with added recruiting and hiring costs. Concern over student and school performance also pushes this issue forward. Thus, a strategic response is needed and efforts to stem teacher attrition must center on the school site and on the factors that support good teaching. For where the good teaching environment is, there will also be a better learning environment that fosters educational success.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Communication Behaviour of Kinnow Growers in Haryana
Abstract:

The present study was conducted in Sirsa and Hisar districts of Haryana state with 80 farmers as a sample. The major thirst of the study was upon the communication behavior of the farmers to get information for scientific cultivation of kinnow crop. The District Horticulture Officer (DHO) and its officials were the most preferred source of information with maximum credibility and trustworthiness. The university scientists topped the list of information sources from the point of view of level of satisfaction derived by the kinnow growers. The farmers were having a large communication gap of 46.75 with the university scientists and a narrow communication gap of 18.50 and 17.75 with DHO/HDOs and the input dealers, respectively. However, the largest communication gap of 76.67 was found in case of radio. The higher caste and the well educated farmers considered university scientists a more reliable source and therefore seized to opt for input dealers.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Attitude of Beneficiary Dairy Farmers towards District Poverty Initiative Project (DPIP)
Abstract:

The present study was conducted in Rajsamand and Baran districts of Rajasthan. The investigation was done to assess the factors associated with attitude of the beneficiaries under District Poverty Initiative Project (DPIP). A scale was developed to measure the attitude of the beneficiary farmers towards District Poverty Initiative Project (DPIP) based on Likert, R. (1932) technique for the measurement of attitudes. The findings infer that the 83.33 percent of beneficiaries had more favourable attitude towards DPIP programme. The beneficiaries responded all the positive statements of the scale in favour and negative statements in disfavour. They strongly supported the positive statements like; “DPIP programme should be extended to all villages of the other districts”, and “DPIP programme helps beneficiaries to develop links with dairy cooperative societies” Beneficiaries strongly disagreed with the negative statements like; “there is no need of DPIP programme as this is not helpful in reducing poverty”, “Activities selected under the DPIP programme are not according to the needs of the beneficiaries”; respectively.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Sources of Information and Perception of Farmers towards Soil Testing Techniques
Abstract:

Understanding what farmer needs to know and from whom they receive information during the course of cultivation is essential to ensuring quality production. Sources of farm information are the tool of communication web that holds a society together and it is a collection of small and relatively isolated agricultural communities. The information hungry farmers are approaching very many sources and channels for getting information on farm innovation. The success of an extension approach will depend on how it enhances the information flow along the agriculture value chain, and whether this is done sustainably and effectively. The right doses of chemical fertilizers application by the farmers in crops are very much essential to achieve maximum production and to earn maximum profit. Soil testing techniques helps the farmer’s for reasonable application of chemical fertilizers. The farmers will be able to know how much nutrients are already available in the soil and how much additional fertilizer nutrient will be arranged for a particular crop. The lion’s share of farmers had information about soil testing techniques. Majority of respondents were using the information gained from the personnel of State Department of Agriculture and the scientists working in Krishi Vigyan Kendra in the study area. Majority of farmers agreed with the statement “Soil testing is basic step for quality crop production ". The efforts should be made by State Department of Agriculture and KVK to encourage the farmers in acceptance of soil testing process by organizing training programmes and campaigns especially on soil testing techniques.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Household Food Security through Kitchen Garden: A Practically Workable Step by KVKs in U.P. State
Abstract:

Continuously increasing food prices of basic kitchen items, fruits and vegetables the poor and fixed income groups are suffering from the decreasing real incomes and purchasing power. The marginal increase in the income of the poor people to enable them to gain access to food and improve their nutrition is the need of the present time. The kitchen garden falls under bio-intensive and participatory innovation which can provide year round availability, access and consumption of adequate amount and varieties which supply not only the calorific demands but also the micronutrients by the resource poor. One of the easiest ways of ensuring access to a healthy diet that contains adequate macro- and micronutrients is to produce many different kinds of foods in the home garden. This is especially important in rural areas where people have limited income-earning opportunities and poor access to markets. Kitchen gardening contributes to household food security by providing direct access to food that can be harvested, prepared and fed to family members, often on a daily basis. Home gardens are also becoming an increasingly important source of food and income for poor households in peri-urban and urban areas. Kitchen gardens can be grown in the empty space available at the backyard of the house or a group of women can come together, identify a common place or land and grow desired vegetables, fruits, cereals etc that can benefit the women and community as a whole (Christensen, 2011). There are many social benefits that have emerged from kitchen gardening practices; better health and nutrition, increased income, employment, food security within the household, and enhance in community social life.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Effectiveness of Selected Medias in Gain and Retention of Knowledge by Rural Women of District Udaipur
Abstract:

Media play a very important role in communicating ideas intended to change behaviour of people right from developing awareness about an innovation to its adoption. Thus it is important that these should be well designed so that people can understand properly. So the communication material before produced on large scale must be tested in the field for its effectiveness. Thus an effort was made to find out the effectiveness of selected medias (lecture + demonstration+ print and electronic media) in gain and retention of knowledge by rural women.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Administrative Structure of Punjab
Abstract:

Punjab state, sometimes pronounced as Panjab, is geographically found between the border of India and Pakistan. The literal  meaning of Punjab is land of five rivers. These five rivers are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum. All these rivers are tributaries of Indus river. As of today, only two rivers Sutlej and Beas flow through Punjab state in India. Ravi flows partially in Punjab, mainly along the international boundry of India and Pakistan and then enters Pakistan. Punjab used to be known as Sapat Sindhu before the arrival of Aryans in India. The word Sapat Sindhu means the land of seven rivers. These seven rivers were Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, Saraswati and Sindhu. In Puranas and Mahabharata, it is named as Pancha-nada which means land of five rivers. During the rule of Mughals in India, the region was known with the name Suba-E-Lahore. Greeks referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, which means an inland delta of five converging rivers. In 1966, owing to the demands made by the Akali Dal and various other organisations to create a Punjabi speaking state, the Government divided Punjab into a Punjabi-speaking state of the same name, and Hindi-speaking Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. The state has achieved tremendous growth over the years due to the success of the Green Revolution in the early 70s. For a major period in the second half of the 20th century, Punjab led the other states in India to achieve self-sufficiency in crop production.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Constraints faced by the households in Existing Farming Systems in Chittorgarh and Banaswara districts of Southern Rajasthan
Abstract:

Chittorgarh district from IV-A and Banswara district from IV-B was purposively selected for the study of integrated farming systems, as these districts have high potential for development of agriculture and livestock. Multi stage random sampling plan was used. Two tehsils from each districts were selected in such a way that one having highest proportion of irrigated area and other one having highest share of rainfed area to total net sown area so that selected tehsils represented irrigated and rainfed farming systems in tribal areas. Fifteen farmers from each village were randomly selected. Thus a total sample of 120 households was selected from Chittorgarh and Banswara districts, representing 60 households from rainfed and 60 households from irrigated farming systems. Mainly there were four farming systems prevalent in the rainfed and irrigated condition of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts. Farming system ( FS-I) describes crops + vegetables and crops + dairy cattle forms FS-II. Crops + dairy + goats constituted the FS-III. Crops either supported by poultry or orchards were the part of FS-IV in both the situations of the selected districts. In rainfed and irrigated area of Chittorgarh and Banswara districts households reported as lack of timely availability of good quality seeds, gave first rank in crops it was followed by lack of availability of agricultural labour in peak season low price of farm produce at the time of harvest and high cost of quality seeds. Constraints faced by households in livestock enterprises in Chittorgarh and Banswara districts presented were low productivity, non availability of green fodder, lack of A.I and veterinary facilities and high cost of feed and fodder were the most important constraints. Constraints faced by households in horticulture crops in both the districts were low productivity, lack of good quality of planting material , Hi-incidence of disease and pest, scarcity of labour, lack of processing facilities, lack of storage of facilities, lack of knowledge about recommended package and practices lack of institutional credit and lake of transportation and marketing facilities.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Satisfaction of the Viewers Regarding "Mera Pind Mere Khet Programme" of Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar
Abstract:

The present study entitled Content Analysis of "Mera Pind Mere Khet Programme" of Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar was under taken with the objectives to study the socio-economic profile of the respondents to study respondents reactions about content of the programme and satisfaction level and to investigate the viewing behaviour of the respondents. From the three districts selected, two blocks were selected, from each district three villages were then selected from each block, and ten MPMK viewing farming families were selected selectively from each village. Adult member of each farming family were then selected. Thus the total sample comprised of 180 farmers for the present study. The data were collected by following personal interview approach method and were tabulated and analysed using appropriate statistical tools. The findings of the study revealed that 67.22% of the respondents had fully satisfied from timing of MPMK programme, 79.11% of the respondents had always satisfied from the accuracy of content ,16.11 % of the respondents said that speed of MPMK programme was very fast, 30.56 % of the respondents said that speed was fast , 41.11% said that speed was normal, 6.11% said that speed of MPMK programme was slow, 65.56% of the respondents said that language used in MPMK programme was completely understandable, 95.56% of the respondents said that MPMK programme was completely balanced i.e. programme provide both practical and theoretical knowledge. It is suggested that the information should be provided in lively conditions and wrapped with traditionally embedded folk media.

Category - Short Communication
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Title:
Kisan Call Centres: Bridging the Gap between the Farmers and Technology Assessment
Abstract:

ICT connects people, generates more trade of goods and services across the globe, and increases access to information and knowledge. In the developed world, the ICT revolution has affected every sphere of life and has been of immense benefit to the people. In India for example, information exchange by electronic means has revitalized the role of extension services in providing information, education and decision-making assistance to agricultural producers. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) refers to systems for producing, storing, sending and retrieving digital files (Bartlett, 2002).