Renu Publishers

International Journal of Bioresource Science
Category - Research Article
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Title:
Advanced Modeling of Soil Biological Properties Using Visible Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Although visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) is an emerging, rapid, non-destructive, and cost effective technology to predict a host of soil biological parameters, the traditional chemometric partial least squares regression (PLS) model often poses challenges during sensor development. In an effort to identify alternatives to the PLS model, three multivariate machine learning algorithms [PLS, penalized spline regression (PSR), and random forest (RF) regression]in conjunction with two spectral preprocessing methods [Savitzky–Golay first derivative and absorbance (ABS)] were compared with respect to 12 soil biological parameters of 123 soil samples. The RF model with ABS spectra successfully predicted all biological parameters with residual prediction deviation (RPD) ranging from 2.60 to 3.60 and outperformed PSR and PLS models. The best PSR model was obtained for total bacteria with an RPD of 2.70 and an r2 of 0.86 and among other variables, only Gram positive bacteria (RPD=2.63, r2=0.85), Gram negative bacteria (RPD=2.58, r2=0.85), and SOM (RPD=2.67, r2=0.86) were satisfactorily predicted, exhibiting r2>0.80 and RPD>2.5. Conversely, all variables except SOM (RPD=2.07) were poorly predicted by PLS models which had an RPD<2. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis qualitatively clustered soils with different levels of microbial parameters. Summarily, the RF model with ABS spectra showed great promise in characterizing soil microbial communities with potential for such analysis in-situ.
Category - Research Article
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Title:
Influenced of different Weed Management Practices for Higher Productivity of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) in West Bengal
Abstract:

Jute, a principal crop in pre kharif season of West Bengal delta is predominantly a rainfed crop and is seriously affected by weeds and drastically reduced green biomass and fibre yields. A field experiment was conducted during the pre kharif season of 2015 and 2016 under randomized block design with ten treatments mainly pretilachlor 50% EC @500 ml/ha , pretilachlor 50% EC @1000 ml/ha, pretilachlor 50% EC @500 ml/ha + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, pretilachlor 50% EC @1000 ml/ha + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, nail weeder 1st at 10 DAS and 2nd at 20 DAS + one hand weeding (within the row) at 35 DAS, nail weeder 1st at 10 DAS + scrapper at 20 DAS + one hand weeding (within the row) at 35 DAS, quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 40 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, weed free and un-weeded control. With various treatments, quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 40 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, nail weeder 1st at 10 DAS + scrapper at 20 DAS + one hand weeding (within the row) at 35 DAS, and pretilachlor 50% EC @1000 ml/ha + one hand weeding at 35 DAS, become very effective to control weed density and biomass throughout the growth phase of plant. Green biomass production with quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS (664.18 q/ha) was significantly better to all other treatments except weed free situation (700.07 q/ha). These treatments record, 62.52 and 71.02 % more biomass over the unwedded check, respectively. Fiber yield was highest observed with weed free situation (38.86 q/ha), and was at par with quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS (36.94 q/ha) and nail weeder 1st at 10 DAS + scrapper at 20 DAS + one hand weeding (within the row) at 35 DAS (34.55 q/ha). These treatments registered, 70.06, 61.16 and 51.20 % more yield over the control plot. Economics revealed that, highest net return (` 1,34,284) and B:C ratio (1.67) observed with the quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g/ha at 20 DAS + one hand weeding at 35 DAS and was followed by pretilachlor 50% EC @1000 ml/ha. By adoption of above mentioned techniques the jute growers can earn more by reducing the cost of cultivation of jute.

Category - Review Article
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Title:
Harnessing Biomass Energy for a Sustainable Future: A Review
Abstract:

Biomasses are one of the most important renewable carbon-negative alternative sources of energy. Biomass energy is one of the best alternatives to be used as a substitute for fossil fuels. Biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. Biomass derived energies are clean because biomass contains low N and S contents compared to the fossil fuels. Further, use of biomass energy is a ‘no-net’ carbon emission process. Hence, use of biomass energy offers a win-win situation. In this paper, we tried to emphasize the present and future scenario of biomass-based energy with a special emphasis on Indian perspective. The available technologies, government policies and already existing market have been discussed in this review. Biomass energy holds the key of possibility to light every household which have no access to power. Biomass energy is the one of the best way to a sustainable energy system of the future.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Entrepreneurship Development Through Preparation of Jute Diversified Products and Efficient Marketing
Abstract:

The output of any research trials or demonstration has no importance if the technology of the trial is not transferred to the grass root level of the community where the product development is done, may it be the large industry or small scale industry. As, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Burdwan under Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres working with the aim of transferring and refinement of technologies to the field level and to the rural communities, it has an important role to play in this context. Krishi Vigyan Kendra Burdwan is working with respect to transfer of technologies in the context of jute production, post harvest and diversified product preparation from jute fibre through field level demonstrations and training programmes. Initiative has been taken for cultivation of jute in Garamba-Bhasapur and Jurjutipara villages of Burdwan district, where farmers were made aware and then motivated towards the cultivation of jute in the year 2010-11 through the field level demonstration where they were not aware much. In the very next year fifty five farmers of the villages started cultivation of jute in an area of 45 ha and got production @ 27-32 q/ha. The jute fibre produced in the village was utilized for preparing different handicraft items. Two vocational training programmes for seven days for 30 trainees in each comprising of rural women and school drop-out girls were organized at different villages to prepare diversified handicrafts from jute fibre. Then most of the trainees formed four Self-Help Groups started preparing different items from fibre where they found good acceptance of their products in different agricultural fairs, exhibitions and shops. KVK, Burdwan facilitated establishment of six shops so far in different places of Burdwan district with the help of NABARD where their JDPs were sold. Most of them had no income before the intervention and now they are getting a good income of Rs. 2500-3000 per month. These interventions helped the rural women and youth earning an additional income and thereby empowering the weaker section of rural folk and increase thesmall scale industries in the particular area.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Floats and Sinkers in Enhancing Efficacy of Fishing Gears Operated in Assam Water Bodies
Abstract:

Floats and sinkers are intrinsic components of a fishing gear fabricated for its effectual stability in water mass or to catch a targeted fish species. Different types of floats and sinkers were developed by the fishers of Assam with time to enhance a fishing operation in terms of gear selectivity at a desired water depth, maintaining the desired configuration and its vertical opening. These fishing gear accessories were prepared mostly with locally available materials which are economical in cost, readily available and easy to fabricate. Floats were either made of natural substances such as light wood and grass stalks or synthetic substances such as plastic bottles and thermocole. Similarly, sinkers are also made of jute materials as organic substances and iron and lead as inorganic substances. The requisite quantities of the floats to be fabricated in a gear were determined based on the buoyancy to withstand water pressure whereas sinkers are determined based on the preferred vertical standing of a net in water column or to stretch the net downwards during operation.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Isolation and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Arsenic-resistant Bacteria and Possible Application in Bioremediation in West Bengal
Abstract:

Soil arsenic contamination is a widespread problem in many developing countries including Bangladesh and India. In recent years development of modern innovative technologies for the removal of arsenic from soil has become an interesting topic for research. In this present study, ten bacteria were isolated besed on their arsenic resistant capacity. Among of them two rod shaped Gram-negative bacteria are being reported, isolated from arsenic affected soil of Chakdaha block of Nadia, West Bengal, India, which can tolerate arsenate concentration up to 409mM and 46mM of arsenite concentration. From biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing, they were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia metallica respectively. The isolates AL-1 and AL73 can remove 29% of arsenite and 30% and 29% of arsenate, respectively from arsenic containing culture media. Both of the isolate can oxidize arsenite to less toxic arsenate. These two also possessed plant growth-promoting traits,including phosphate-solubilization, nodule formation and IAA-like molecules. In addition, the ability of As-resistant isolates to grow over wide ranges of pH and temperatures signify their potential application for sustainable bioremediation of As in the environment.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Influence of Irrigation and Mulching on Yield Attributes, Yield and Quality of Lentil (Lens esculentum L.) Grown as Intercrop under Limited Water Conditions
Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at the Instructional farm, Jaguli, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (State Agricultural University), Mohanpur, Nadia (W.B.) to study the effect of irrigation and mulching on growth, productivity and water use efficiency of safflower based intercropping system during two consecutive winter season of 2010-11 and 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design, replicated thrice, having 3 irrigation treatments in the main plots viz. I1 - rainfed , I2 - Irrigation at 0.5 IW: CPE ratio, I3 - irrigation at 0.75 IW : CPE ratio and 2 cropping system in sub-plots viz., C1 - Sole lentil, C5 - Safflower-lentil grown as 3:2 ratio, respectively and 2 sub-sub plot treatments viz. M0 - No mulching, M1 - Straw mulching. Levels of irrigation, cropping systems and mulching significantly influenced the yield attributing characters and yield of lentil. Among all the levels of irrigation I3 i.e. irrigation at IW: CPE of 0.75 recorded highest values of all yield attributes of lentil. Safflower inter cropped with lentil i.e., C2 showed better result than sole lentil i.e. C1 and straw mulching recorded better result over no mulching. Levels of irrigation significantly influenced the seed yield of lentil. The maximum seed yield (756.87 kg ha-1) was recorded under irrigation at IW: CPE of 0.75 followed by irrigation at IW: CPE of 0.50 75 (706.12 kg ha-1) and the lowest seed yield (667.50 kg ha-1) was recorded under rainfed treatment. The seed yield of sole lentil was 855.83 kg ha-1 while safflower intercropped with lentil was 564.50 kg ha-1. Different levels of irrigation, cropping systems and mulching did not show any significant influence on the protein content of lentil. The highest protein content (26.79%) was recorded under irrigation at IW: CPE of 0.75.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Synthesis and Characterization of Alginate Nanoparticles Encapsulating Selenium and their Antimicrobial Evaluation
Abstract:

Biofilm interfere in antibiotic therapy, undergo gene transformation to become highly virulent, develop quorum sensing and protect bacteria from host immunity. To combat these biofilms the encapsulation method of nanoparticles formation using PEG can be used as they are better alternative to chemical and physical methods. In the present study, the antibiofilm and antioxidant properties of the selenium nanoparticles produced by using probiotics have been evaluated. TEM images of the prepared selenium nanoparticles showed a uniform distribution and their spherical morphology. Due to the small size of the nanoparticles, these could be easily taken up by the bacterial and fungal biofilm leading to their disruption. Nanoparticles showed inhibition of biofilm in the evaluated microbes as evident by decrease in protein and carbohydrate content.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Harvestable Size of Indian Major Carp (Cirrhinus mrigala, Ham. 1822) in Vallabhsagar Reservoir, Gujarat (India)
Abstract:

The present paper the harvestable size of Indian major carp, mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala, Ham. 1822)from Vallabhsagar reservoir (Gujarat) was described and scale samples were collected during March to August 2013. Results shows that age classes (1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+, 6+) and length (27.08 cm, 38.18 cm, 46.79 cm, 53.30 cm, 62.83, 71.40 cm) were observed. The results revealed that mrigal from Vallabhsagar can be harvested at +1 to +2 year of age at the length range 27.08 cm to 38.18cm. Such kind of study on Indian major carp (mrigal)from Vallabhsagar reservoir (Gujarat) was attempted and such information would be helpful to increase the biomass production of fishes and help to manage the water body tomaintain the sustainability.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Effect of Soil Drying and Rewetting on Nitrogen Mineralization from Soil Amended with Organic Matters
Abstract:

Decomposition rate of various organic matters in soil depends on their intrinsic qualities, environmental condition specially temperature and moisture as well as size, diversity and activity of soil microorganisms. Soil water content variation caused by drying and rewetting events constitute an environmental factor that may have an important effect on N mineralization. In the future, many regions of the globe may experience higher mean annual temperatures and greater intra-annual variability in the timing of precipitation events. Under these scenarios, surface soils may experience more frequent drying and rewetting events. However, limited data are available on the effect that drying and rewetting may have on N mineralization from added organic matter. With this background the present study was undertaken with the specific objective to study the effect of drying and wetting of soil on nitrogen mineralization of organic matters under laboratory condition. After 10 days of drying that nitrogen mineralization for all the organics were significantly less as compared to constant moisture treatment. The difference of net nitrogen mineralization was more in tannery waste than other two. After second drying also nitrogen mineralization were more in constant moisture treatment for all the organics. It was also revealed that reduction of net mineralization was more after second drying.

Category - Research Article
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Title:
Annona squamosa as a Potential Botanical Insecticide for Agricultural Domains: A Review
Abstract:

Botanical pesticides obtained naturally from plant-based compounds are found to be an effective alternative to conventional pesticides. Annona squamosa Linn. (Custard apple) is a potential medicinal plant (Family: Annonaceae) with diversified medicinal and pesticidal use, cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries including India. Apart from being consumed as fruit, traditionally it is used in herbal medicines because of itsanti-microbial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-tumor,insecticidal, anthelmintic activities and so on. The phytochemical investigations showed that these extracts contain acetogenins, the major secondary metabolite that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. More than 400 annonaceous acetogenins have been discovered so far including their isomers. They are basically a series of C-35/C-37 natural products derived from C-32/ C-34 fatty acids that are combined with a 2-propanol unit and kill the target organism by ATP deprivation. Only two botanical insecticides have been commercialized till now based on the extracts of A. squamosa that contain squamocin as active ingredient. This review will be definitely helpful for the scientists as well as the researchers dealing with Annona squamosa to know its chemistry and proper applications, as the plant appears to be highly valuable due to its medicinal and pesticidal properties.