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Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 891
Title:
A Study of Status and Scenario of Retail Outlets of Biscuits of Britannia Industries Ltd.
Abstract:

The present investigation was conducted in Chandigarh city covering 25 sectors for analyzing sales network in which 300 retail outlets and distributors were selected through purposive sampling. The information from various retail outlets and distributors was collected with the help of structured questionnaire and the data was analyzed by using various statistical tools. Communication channel, distribution channel, and transaction channel were used towards market expansion. Out for 300 retail outlets only 205 were found active and 95 were found non active. Further sectors 21, 22, 44 and 47 have shown the 100 per cent active retail outlets and minimum active retail outlets have been found in sector 14 with 20 per cent followed by non active retail outlets in sector 15 with 13 per cent. The weekly total sale for Britannia biscuit products was worked out at ` 704800 with an average sale of ` 28000 and the highest sale of Britannia biscuit products was in sectors 22 and 44 with ` 75500 and ` 58400 respectively followed by the minimum sales at sector 14 and 19 with ` 5500 and ` 6500 respectively.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 807
Title:
Attrition of Private and Public School Teachers: A Comparative Analysis
Abstract:

The study focused on the factors that influence teacher attrition decision in comparison between public and private institution. The study used descriptive research design. A total of 30 teachers participated in answering the survey questionnaires based from Herzberg Hygiene Theory. Descriptive analysis shows slight difference in the extent of how each factor influences teacher’s attrition decision. T-Test revealed a significant difference in the attrition between private and public school teachers (p = .000 < 0.05). This further implies that factors that influence attrition decision of the movers are different from those who came from private and public institution. Truly, teacher attrition burdens educational institutions with added recruiting and hiring costs. Concern over student and school performance also pushes this issue forward. Thus, a strategic response is needed and efforts to stem teacher attrition must center on the school site and on the factors that support good teaching. For where the good teaching environment is, there will also be a better learning environment that fosters educational success.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 791
Title:
Comparative Analysis of Groundnut Growing States in Western India
Abstract:

The research study entitled “Comparative analysis of groundnut growing states in Western India” is an attempt to determine the cost structure and changes in cost of cultivation and to identify which state in Western India is having comparative economic advantage in the production of groundnut. The study is based on secondary data collected from various published sources for the period under reference. Cost structure of the crop was analyzed by working out the share of each item of cost in total cost of cultivation. The changes in structure of cost of cultivation of groundnut over twenty years were assessed by comparing the cost structure of each crop during 2012-13 as compared to 1992-93. The states included in the study were Gujarat and Maharashtra. The results would help in planning the future strategies and policy direction for oilseed crop productivity in the states. Among the groundnut growing states, Gujarat state emerged with higher growth rate of 3.72 per cent per annum for the yield of groundnut during the period of 1992-93 to 2012-13. Gujarat state was found to have higher stability in the yield of groundnut, as the detrended cv (coefficient of variation) for the yield of groundnut was the lowest for Gujarat (2.17%). The total cost of cultivation of groundnut has increased in Gujarat by 567.21 per cent and in Maharashtra by 581.77 per cent during the study period. Over the years, the net income from groundnut has increased in Maharashtra by 1153.24 per cent and in Gujarat by 389.06 per cent.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 784
Title:
Communication Behaviour of Kinnow Growers in Haryana
Abstract:

The present study was conducted in Sirsa and Hisar districts of Haryana state with 80 farmers as a sample. The major thirst of the study was upon the communication behavior of the farmers to get information for scientific cultivation of kinnow crop. The District Horticulture Officer (DHO) and its officials were the most preferred source of information with maximum credibility and trustworthiness. The university scientists topped the list of information sources from the point of view of level of satisfaction derived by the kinnow growers. The farmers were having a large communication gap of 46.75 with the university scientists and a narrow communication gap of 18.50 and 17.75 with DHO/HDOs and the input dealers, respectively. However, the largest communication gap of 76.67 was found in case of radio. The higher caste and the well educated farmers considered university scientists a more reliable source and therefore seized to opt for input dealers.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 700
Title:
Empowerment of Rural Women Through Self-Help Groups of Udaipur District
Abstract:
The study was conducted for empowerment of rural women through self-help groups with specific objective to study the empowerment of rural women through self-help groups. The study was conducted in Udaipur district of Rajasthan.Total 1123 groups were registered during year 2008-09 by different forming agencies. In which, 16 SHGs were selected from NABARD, 17 SHGs were selected from ICDS, 56 SHGs were selected from DRDA. Only 13 SHGs were selected from SAUs .Major findings of the study revealed that 93 percent agree on Participation in community Programme and only17 percent agreed on Decision making in community affairs. However 50 per cent women do agree that they  observed increase in self-confidence and self-esteem after becoming the member of self-help group.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 691
Title:
Estimation of Demand and Supply Functions and Destination of Export of Basmati Rice from India
Abstract:
India possesses an immense wealth of Basmati and non-Basmati aromatic rice varieties exhibiting a wide variability in their grain quality and cooking characteristics. India is a major producer of basmati rice and accounts for almost 70% of the world production and nearly two-third of the country’s produce is exported. In the present study, estimation of demand and supply function of export of basmati rice along with destination wise pattern of export has been done on the basis of secondary data for the period of 2001-2011. Demand and supply functions were estimated by the simultaneous equation model: two stage least square method. Saudi Arabia and Italy were the leading importers of basmati rice from India during the last one decade. Export supply of Indian basmati rice was mainly on the basis of long-term contracts with the importing countries.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 677
Title:
A Study on Constraints Encountered by the Tribal Livestock Farmers in Southern Rajasthan
Abstract:
The study was conducted in Sirohi district of Southern Rajasthan, in order to identify the problems faced by the tribal farmers and to work out the relationship of problems with socio-economic and psychological traits of the respondents. The findings revealed that major problems faced by the tribal farmers were economic problem, less profit from domesticated animals, non-availability of green fodder, non-availability of superior male animal, harassment by the forest personnel in open grazing, lack of easy accesses to veterinarian, absence of scientific farming etc. The relational analysis revealed that occupational and family income from animal husbandry had positive and highly significant (P<0.01) influence on problems of livestock rearing. On the other hand, livestock unit showed negative and highly significant influence on problems of livestock rearing.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 672
Title:
Evaluation of Training Workshop on Personality Development
Abstract:
Training is a short-term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Training and development increases the employee performance and is an important activity to increase the performance of organization. Swami Keshwamand Rajasthan Agricultural University (SKRAU), Bikaner has made remarkable efforts and developmental plans to achieve specific objectives so that it can achieve rapid and systematic progress in all spheres of teaching, research and extension. For achievement of desired objectives, employees have to play crucial role in development of an organization through constant efforts. This study aims to determine what personality development training needs to deliver to help individuals and the organization accomplish their goals and objectives. This is an assessment that looks at different personality parameters of lecturers, motivation towards KPIs and willingness to learn new traits for personality enhancement. The workshop conducted by SKRAU has been highly successful in developing a positive approach in participants towards their profession and enhanced their personality and communication skills thus helping them in delivering the lecturers and seminars in efficient manner. Increased level of self-confidence has been noticed amongst participants as a result of this workshop. This type of workshop is highly recommendable for future as well for achievement of university goals.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 665
Title:
Administrative Structure of Punjab
Abstract:

Punjab state, sometimes pronounced as Panjab, is geographically found between the border of India and Pakistan. The literal  meaning of Punjab is land of five rivers. These five rivers are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum. All these rivers are tributaries of Indus river. As of today, only two rivers Sutlej and Beas flow through Punjab state in India. Ravi flows partially in Punjab, mainly along the international boundry of India and Pakistan and then enters Pakistan. Punjab used to be known as Sapat Sindhu before the arrival of Aryans in India. The word Sapat Sindhu means the land of seven rivers. These seven rivers were Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, Saraswati and Sindhu. In Puranas and Mahabharata, it is named as Pancha-nada which means land of five rivers. During the rule of Mughals in India, the region was known with the name Suba-E-Lahore. Greeks referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, which means an inland delta of five converging rivers. In 1966, owing to the demands made by the Akali Dal and various other organisations to create a Punjabi speaking state, the Government divided Punjab into a Punjabi-speaking state of the same name, and Hindi-speaking Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. The state has achieved tremendous growth over the years due to the success of the Green Revolution in the early 70s. For a major period in the second half of the 20th century, Punjab led the other states in India to achieve self-sufficiency in crop production.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 652
Title:
Household Food Security through Kitchen Garden: A Practically Workable Step by KVKs in U.P. State
Abstract:

Continuously increasing food prices of basic kitchen items, fruits and vegetables the poor and fixed income groups are suffering from the decreasing real incomes and purchasing power. The marginal increase in the income of the poor people to enable them to gain access to food and improve their nutrition is the need of the present time. The kitchen garden falls under bio-intensive and participatory innovation which can provide year round availability, access and consumption of adequate amount and varieties which supply not only the calorific demands but also the micronutrients by the resource poor. One of the easiest ways of ensuring access to a healthy diet that contains adequate macro- and micronutrients is to produce many different kinds of foods in the home garden. This is especially important in rural areas where people have limited income-earning opportunities and poor access to markets. Kitchen gardening contributes to household food security by providing direct access to food that can be harvested, prepared and fed to family members, often on a daily basis. Home gardens are also becoming an increasingly important source of food and income for poor households in peri-urban and urban areas. Kitchen gardens can be grown in the empty space available at the backyard of the house or a group of women can come together, identify a common place or land and grow desired vegetables, fruits, cereals etc that can benefit the women and community as a whole (Christensen, 2011). There are many social benefits that have emerged from kitchen gardening practices; better health and nutrition, increased income, employment, food security within the household, and enhance in community social life.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 651
Title:
Constraints Encountered by the Beekeepers under National Horticulture Mission in Rajasthan, India
Abstract:
National Horticulture Mission was been launched in May, 2005 as a Central Sponsored Scheme to promote holistic growth of horticulture sector through area based regionally differentiated strategies. The role of beekeeping in providing nutritional, economic and ecological security to the rural communities at the household level is an additional income generating activity.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 650
Title:
Sources of Information and Perception of Farmers towards Soil Testing Techniques
Abstract:

Understanding what farmer needs to know and from whom they receive information during the course of cultivation is essential to ensuring quality production. Sources of farm information are the tool of communication web that holds a society together and it is a collection of small and relatively isolated agricultural communities. The information hungry farmers are approaching very many sources and channels for getting information on farm innovation. The success of an extension approach will depend on how it enhances the information flow along the agriculture value chain, and whether this is done sustainably and effectively. The right doses of chemical fertilizers application by the farmers in crops are very much essential to achieve maximum production and to earn maximum profit. Soil testing techniques helps the farmer’s for reasonable application of chemical fertilizers. The farmers will be able to know how much nutrients are already available in the soil and how much additional fertilizer nutrient will be arranged for a particular crop. The lion’s share of farmers had information about soil testing techniques. Majority of respondents were using the information gained from the personnel of State Department of Agriculture and the scientists working in Krishi Vigyan Kendra in the study area. Majority of farmers agreed with the statement “Soil testing is basic step for quality crop production ". The efforts should be made by State Department of Agriculture and KVK to encourage the farmers in acceptance of soil testing process by organizing training programmes and campaigns especially on soil testing techniques.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 586
Title:
Economic Strengthening through Food Processing: A Study of Rajasthan Mission on Livelihood (RMoL)
Abstract:
The Rajasthan Mission on Livelihoods (RMoL) was initiated on 4th September, 2004 to upgrade the status of livelihood for poor and vulnerable people of the state. It emphasized on strengthening employability by developing skill in various entrepreneurial activities through skill trainings. The present study was conducted to find out the usefulness of Food processing training organized under RMoL and adoption of it as an enterprise by the women. The study was conducted in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Directorate of Extension Education, MPUAT, Udaipur is one of the organization implementing activities of Rajasthan Mission on Livelihoods in the Udaipur district. A total twenty five women participant, who attended the training were selected for the study. Personal interview technique was used for collecting data. The findings show that the Food processing training was good and increased women’s knowledge, skill and efficiency in taking various processed items like macca, rice, maida, sago and suji papadi, chana and moong papad, badi, potato Chips, khakhare and farfar. Only five respondents out of twenty five had started enterprise on processed items. They
earned an average income of ` 18528 per year and utilized the income for fulfilling the requirement of their family. Thus the RMoL helped in creating gainful eployment for the rural people which enhanced their socio-economic status.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 577
Title:
Satisfaction of the Viewers Regarding "Mera Pind Mere Khet Programme" of Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar
Abstract:

The present study entitled Content Analysis of "Mera Pind Mere Khet Programme" of Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar was under taken with the objectives to study the socio-economic profile of the respondents to study respondents reactions about content of the programme and satisfaction level and to investigate the viewing behaviour of the respondents. From the three districts selected, two blocks were selected, from each district three villages were then selected from each block, and ten MPMK viewing farming families were selected selectively from each village. Adult member of each farming family were then selected. Thus the total sample comprised of 180 farmers for the present study. The data were collected by following personal interview approach method and were tabulated and analysed using appropriate statistical tools. The findings of the study revealed that 67.22% of the respondents had fully satisfied from timing of MPMK programme, 79.11% of the respondents had always satisfied from the accuracy of content ,16.11 % of the respondents said that speed of MPMK programme was very fast, 30.56 % of the respondents said that speed was fast , 41.11% said that speed was normal, 6.11% said that speed of MPMK programme was slow, 65.56% of the respondents said that language used in MPMK programme was completely understandable, 95.56% of the respondents said that MPMK programme was completely balanced i.e. programme provide both practical and theoretical knowledge. It is suggested that the information should be provided in lively conditions and wrapped with traditionally embedded folk media.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 1-Volume 1]
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No. of downloads - 564
Title:
Need Assessment of Women Dairy Farmers
Abstract:
The present study was conducted in Hisar district of Haryana state. From Hisar district, two blocks Adampur and Hisar- I were selected randomly. From selected blocks, two villages, namely Siswal from Adampur and Dabra from Hisar-1 were selected by random technique. From each selected village, 50 women were selected randomly, thus making a total sample of 100 women. From selected villages, 20 women who were interested in training in dairy farming were selected purposively. Majority of the respondents belonged to middle age group, illiterate, married and belonged to joint family of medium family size. Eighty-four per cent respondents had no social participation and had small herd size. Most of the respondents (25%) had medium land holding and lived in pacca houses. Training need score was obtained highest for the task housing management of cattle shed (Mean-76.83 and rank-I), followed by animal health, watering, wallowing and bathing, breeding, post-parturition care, bedding, care and management of calves, feeding, marketing, farm management and accounting and milking and milk product preparation ranked from II to XI, respectively. Similarly, training need was high for animal health (ranked-II) but dairy farm women had high knowledge (74.1) and low difficulty (2.19). It was surprise to see that after computing frequency, importance, difficulty and knowledge of last ranks were given to farm management and accounting (X rank) and milking and milk product preparation (XI rank) but highest learning difficulty by dairy farm women was perceived for these components. It was also interesting to note that negligible percentage of respondents performed tasks of dairy farm management and accounting and marketing where money matters were involved.