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Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 1183
Title:
Improvement of Jute Retting Processes in India in the Context of Water Scarce Situation
Abstract:
The jute industry is facing severe competition from synthetic packaging materials in the present situation. To sustain the jute industry and to upli our benevolent mother nature there is a natural intention to move towards more diversifi ed products like fi ne jute yarn, high quality home furnishing jute fabrics, light shopping /carrying bags, various innovative gi articles & decorative products, requiring higher quality fi bre. Thus with the growing demand of high quality fi bre the economic signifi cance of fi bre quality is also increasing on which the future of jute will ultimately depend to a great extent. Despite the fact the amount of quality fi bre is not increasing at the desired level. This is mainly because the farmers a er pu ing all their eff orts in cultivating the crop are least bothered or negligent about the post harvest techniques and are using the same age old re ing practices without caring about its impact on the fi bre quality mainly due to lack of proper knowledge and awareness about its benefi t or adequate incentive / fi nancial benefi t.
Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 1046
Title:
Integrated Weed Management in Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa)
Abstract:
A fi eld experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2010 and 2011 at the Regional Research Station, Kalimpong (1250 m a.s.l), to fi nd out eff ective and suitable method of weed control in transplanted rice under mid hill conditions. The major weed found in control plot were Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa colonum, Cynodon dactylon Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus diff ormis, Fimbristylis miliaceae, Ammania baccifera, Ludwigia parvifl ora. Pre-emergence application of metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl supplemented with one hand weeding at 40 DAT, provided a broad – spectrum weed control and was signifi cantly superior to rest all other integrated approach of weed control. The highest weedcontrol effi ciency (91.4%) was also recorded under this treatment. The grain yield was highest with hand weeding thrice (6.61 t/ha) which was comparable with treatment of metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl (0.005 kg/ha) supplemented with one hand weeding (6.47 t/ha). The highest benefi t : cost ratio was with metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl (0.005 kg/ha) supplemented with one hand weeding at 40 DAT (2.18) and was followed by pretilachlor (0.5 kg/ha) followed by one hand weeding (2.14). Metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl (0.005 kg/ha) followed by one hand weeding at 40 DAT controlled weed population and gave yield a ributing traits and yield comparable to those of hand weeding thrice and proved more remunerative than other weed management practices.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 3]
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No. of downloads - 966
Title:
An economic analysis of crop diversification under inorganic and organic farming in West Bengal
Abstract:

The Indian food basket is diversifying in favour of high value food commodities like fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry products and fish products from staple food such as rice, wheat and coarse cereals since the nineties of the 20th century. This raises a challenge to Indian agriculture. On the other hand, dominance of chemical based mono-cropping results soil erosion, water contamination, pesticides poisoning, land degradation through water logging and soil salinity, depletion of bio-diversity, etc. This again raises another challenge to Indian agriculture. Organic farming system may generate such situation to address both the challenges mentioned above. So, attempt has been taken to find out the performance of organic farming, addressing the crop diversification at different level of farm sizes along with different crop growing seasons in West Bengal. To measure the extent and nature of crop diversification, Herfindahl Index (H.I.) and Modified Entropy Index (M.E.I.) have been worked out. The result showed that maximum crop diversification occurred in sub-marginal farms and small farms under inorganic and organic farming system, respectively. On the other hand, rabi season exhibited prominent crop diversification in both inorganic and organic farms due to comparative advantages of residual moisture availability in soil. The estimation highlighted that crop diversification facilitated higher cropping intensity followed by higher net farm income of small and marginal households in West Bengal. The analysis concluded that availability of market and price premium influenced more diversion of area towards vegetables, in organic farms.

Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 845
Title:
Natural Gum Resources in India and their Commercial Importance
Abstract:
Gums are produced from woody plants either naturally from exudations from cracks in the bark or damage to the bark by insects or animals. Gum fl ow is also artifi cially induced by incisions in the bark. The viscous, bri le nodule, which forms, can easily be removed by the hand. Gums are nothing but complex carbohydrate derivatives of a polysaccharide nature and are either soluble in water, as in the case of gum arable, or form mucilages by the absorption of large amounts of water. Uses of gums for domestic consumption and for sale to earn some cash are very common among the forest dwelling communities, particularly tribes in India. Annually around 5,000 tons of plant based gums produced in India. Gum Arabic, Gum Gha i and Gum Karaya are some commercially important gums produced in India. These are used as in confectionaries, dairy products, beverages, as emulsifi er in food products, petroleum and for oil-well- acidizing purpose in the industry. Continuous research support is needed for processing, value addition and product development to meet the changing demand of domestic and international consumers
Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 738
Title:
A chlorophyll reading based method for non-destructive screening and scoring of rice genotypes for resistance to bacterial blight
Abstract:
Accurate phenotyping is an essential prerequisite for resistance gene identifi cation and selection of resistant genotypes. Screening for bacterial blight disease infestation and resistance gene identifi cation in rice are based on visual observations, which are error prone. A non-destructive method for screening of resistant genotypes using SPAD chlorophyll meter is described. Two indices, A and B were developed. Both the indices have high correlation with visual selection based standard evaluation system (SES) method. Index B was found more suitable for diff erentiation between resistant and susceptible lines.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 708
Title:
Ground reality assessment and possible strategies in improvement of red gram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in old alluvial plains of West Bengal
Abstract:

Average yield of pulse crops in the world during triennium ending 2014 was 890 kg ha-1 where as in the same period, India produced only 648 kg ha-1, showing a yield gap by 27 per cent. The country has to import a large quantity of pulses every year to cater to the need of its domestic demand. Red gram is one of the 14 leguminous pulse crops that are reportedly grown in the country and it contributes about 15 percent of the national area as well as production under pulse crops. A farmer’s plot experiment oriented study was conducted in a region comprised of all the seven blocks of the Jangipur Sub-division in Murshidabad district of West Bengal during the period from 2011-12 to 2014-15 in kharif season every year. Our experiment had two objectives, first one was to study performance of suitable cultivar along with better nutrient management practices for this zone, and second one was to study the yield gap for this crop grown with 3 varieties in the area, and the pictures of price cum profit status of the growers under purely rain fed old alluvial and laterite soil condition. Field experiment revealed that more grain yield was registered with the cultivar P 855 (2.35 t ha-1) and significantly better than rest of the treated cultivars. This gave 37.42 % more yield over local farmer variety. With various integrated nutrient management practices, more grain yield was recorded with the 75 % RDF + 5 t FYM ha-1, and was at par with the all treatment except 50 % RDF + 10 t FYM ha-1. Production efficiency was more registered with the P 855, and was at par with all other treatments except local farmer cultivars. With subplot dealing of production efficiency, considerably more was create with 75 % RDF + 5 t FYM ha-1, and was at par with all the treatment except 50 % RDF + 10 t FYM ha-1. As per economics were concerned more of B:C ratio was found with the cultivar P 855 (2.18) with 75 % RDF + 5 t FYM ha-1 (1.89). Further with the second objective, the yield gap was found to range from 34 to 48 %. The farmers faced large discrepancies in the market regarding the sale of their surplus produce and ultimately they failed to enjoy high profits from growing this crop. But the crop is a promising one in the area provided strategic measures are taken for improvement.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 704
Title:
Studies on Genetic Variability in Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)
Abstract:
An a empt was made to study the extent of genetic variability present in gerbera grown under protected conditions in mid-hills of West Bengal. The values for GVC, in general, were in closer proximity to that of PCV for almost all the characters indicating that these can be utilized in breeding programme. The magnitude of heritability estimates were observed to be high in most of the characters except fl ower diameter and girth of stalk indicating substantial improvement can be made by using standard selection criteria. High genetic advance coupled with high heritability and comparable genotypic coeffi cient of variation were observed for number of leaves/plant, disc diameter, weight of harvested stalk and vase life indicating the preponderance of additive gene eff ects in controlling these characters.
Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 694
Title:
Effect of Biocontrol Agent Consortia for Ecofriendly Management of Stem and Root Rot in Olitorius Jute caused by Macrophomina phaseolina
Abstract:
Stem and root rot in jute caused by Macrophomina phaseolina hold a great problem in managing the diseases since the pathogen is seed, soil and air borne. Biological control of the diseases can be successfully utilized especially within the framework of integrated disease management system. Three biocontrol agents namely Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger (AN 27) and Pseudomonas fl uorescens were evaluated for their growth promoting ability in jute under in vitro condition. Signifi cantly higher vigour index was observed when T. viride and P. fl uorescens were applied in consortia, whereas, A. niger had low plant growth promoting ability irrespective of consortia used. Field experiment was conducted in two consecutive years to assess the integrated management of M. phaseolina induced stem and root rot by application of three bioagents through seed treatment or soil application either single or in consortium with seed treating fungicide carbendazim. The biocontrol agents applied in consortium through seed treatment and soil application was signifi cantly superior management option to reduce stem and root rot although at par with the treatment where the bioagents were applied through seed treatment and soil application integrated with fungicide seed treatment. Fibre yield increased signifi cantly when bioagents particularly T. viride and P. fl uorescens applied individually or in consortia integrated with carbendazim resulting 60-83% increase in fi bre yield in comparison to control.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 1-Volume 3]
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No. of downloads - 690
Title:
Food insecurity and climatic change in Southern Region of Nigeria: An environmental health analysis
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of flood disaster due to climate change on food security of flood disaster victims in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria. A sample of 120 people drawn from 34 local government areas of the affected communities was selected using simple random sampling. A Structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection, using a design time survey design. The results revealed that there was food insecurity as a result of destruction of the crops by flood and lack of land to cultivate since most of the lands were flooded. This resulted to malnutrition, hunger, and poverty. It was revealed that through extension workers, the problem of food insecurity could be reduced in these areas. Based on these findings recommendations were made, among which was that the government should use Extension Workers to distribute food and drugs to the affected areas to improve their health and food security.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 680
Title:
Water Quality Assessment with Water Quality Indices
Abstract:
A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. These indices utilize various physico-chemical and biological parameters and have been resulted as an outcome of
eff orts and research and development carried out by diff erent government agencies and experts in this area globally. This review paper includes the water quality assessment with water quality indices being used globally.
Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 672
Title:
Status of ground water quality in selected shallow aquifers of Saharsa district, the Kosi megafan, the North Bihar Plains
Abstract:

Water is one of the most indispensable resource and the elixir of life. Ground water is one of the major source of drinking water in India and therefore, it plays a vital role in human health. Generally, ground water is extracted through hand pump in Saharsa district (The Kosi megafan, The North Bihar Plains). Geogenic and anthropogenic activities are the two factors responsible for the quality degradation of ground water. Excessive ground water extraction for agriculture, industries and domestic utilization, made it liable to deterioration. Keeping these considerations, a study was conducted to evaluate the physio-chemical properties viz., pH, EC, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, TDS, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, sulphate and iron of water samples obtained from the 10 blocks namely Sattarkatiya, Saurbazar, Kahra, Pattarghat, Navhatta, BanmaIthari, Salkhua, Mahishi, Simri-Bakhtiyarpur and Sonbarsa and the urban region (city part) of Saharsa district, Bihar. Among the various parameters, iron and fluoride content in some locations were found surpassing the permissible limit. The parameters were analyzed and compared with the standards values as prescribed by American Public Health Association (APHA), World Health Organization (WHO), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). General recommendation as the permissible limits for iron is 0.3-1 mg/L and fluoride is 1.0-1.5 mg/L. However, status of iron and fluoride in the study area were found in the range of 0.3-4.1 mg/L and 0.2-1.5 mg/L respectively, which shows that there is a requirement of holistic approach to improve the quality of ground water.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-volume 2]
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No. of downloads - 658
Title:
In vitro morphogenesis studies in gerbera jamesonii bolus ex hooker F.
Abstract:

An experiment was conducted during 2013 at the Horticultural Biotechnology Laboratory, KNK College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, RVSKVV, Gwalior (MP). The highest percentage of aseptic culture (83.54%) of explants were recorded with 0.5% bavistin in combination with 0.2% HgCl2 when diverse explants were exposed for 30 minutes. followed by application of 0.5% bavistin in combination with 0.1% HgCl2 (78.76%), while higher survival percentage (74.32%) of explants were evidenced with 0.5% bavistin in combination with 0.1% HgCl2 with exposure time 30 minutes. Combination of 0.5% bavistin with 0.1% HgCl2 exposed for the 30 minutes supported higher percentage of aseptic culture (78.76%) as well as survival of explants (74.13%) so that, this concentration and combination was used for surface sterilization of explants of gerbera during present investigation. The maximum callus was recorded on culture medium MS3D (35.09%), MS3N (33.83%) and MS2D (33.02%) with at par performance. Remaining culture media had low callus forming ability including MS5T (18.87%) that has significantly minimum counts. Maximum callus induction were recorded from cultured mature embryo on nutrients media MS3ip (35.06%) closely followed by a group of four nutrients media viz: MS2ip (29.95%), MSip (29.75%), MS.5ip (29.93%) and MS.2ip (29.12%). different culture media combination, inoculation media MS2N.5ip (55.22%), MS3N.5ip (53.17%) and MSN5ip (45.01%) were proved remarkably superior for shoots proliferating efficiency. Nutrients media MS5D.5Kn (3.05%) and MS4D.5KN (4.81%) was found low responding in this regard. Nutrient media MS2N (2.14cm), MSN (2.03cm) and MS2D (1.95) had produced shoot of higher length.

Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 616
Title:
Relationship between Early Blight Disease Severity and Uptake of NPK by Potato Under Diverse Fertility Gradient of Soil
Abstract:
Negative correlations were observed between the early blight disease severity (%) and uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by potato crop. The experiment was carried out by 13 treatments combination including untreated control (S0N0P0K0) with four diff erent soil fertility gradient and Kufri jyoti was selected as test variety for the experiment. From this relationship, it clearly indicated that with increasing the disease severity there was Nitrogen uptake drastically reduced. Similarly, in case of Phosphorus and Potassium uptake by the plant extremely reduced with the increases of early blight disease severity. It due to less leaf area index (LAI), less root formation and less photosynthetic production were confi rmed in the linear regression line and regression equations. The highest tuber yield (340.4 quintal ha-1) was recorded in high fertility gradient of soil with higher NPK combinations (S4N250P150K125) followed by medium fertility gradient soil i.e. 339.4 quintal ha-1 (S3N200P150K125) and were found signifi cantly superior to other treatments combination and in respect of untreated control under diff erent fertility gradient of soil. From this observation, it could be noted that the high fertility gradient soil recorded the maximum yield and minimum yield obtained in low fertil.
Category - Review Article
[Issue 2-Volume 2 ]
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No. of downloads - 610
Title:
Biomarkers: A tool for monitoring pesticide pollution
Abstract:
The presence of xenobiotics in the environment always represents a risk for living organisms. Thus, there is a need to detect toxicity in the organism, and the concept of intoxication is related to specifi c organ alterations and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the relationship between the toxic levels within the organism and the toxic response is rather complex and has a diffi cult forecast because it depends on several factors, namely toxicokinetic and genetic factors. One of the methods to quantify the interaction with xenobiotics and its potential impact on living organisms, including the human being, is monitoring by the use of the so-called biomarkers. Biomarkers are used to detect the eff ects of pesticides before adverse clinical health eff ects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic eff ect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA, protein and haemoglobin adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental eff ects. Determination of cytogenetic markers help in of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. Thus suitable bioindicators, containing specifi c biomarkers hold the future trend of environmental monitoring 
Category - Research Article
[Issue 2-Volume 3]
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No. of downloads - 600
Title:
Molecular Characterization of Pigment Producing Microbes Associated with Marine Sponges and their Microbial Assay
Abstract:

Marine sponges are animals grows under the sea level, contain abundant microbial communities, such as bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. Sponge associated microorganisms are an untapped source for pigments that can have wide range of applications in industries including food industry and textile industry. In the current study, Four species of sponges (Echinodictyum sp., Spongia sp., Halichondria panicea and Hippospongia lachne) from a depth of 5–10m were collected from Thiruchendur, South East coast of India and screened for pigment producing microbes. The Isolated microbes were characterized by phenotypic and molecular characterization. The pigments were extracted from the isolated microbes and are characterized by which they found to be carotenoid and chlorophyll. The antimicrobial activity of the pigment was analyzed by antibiotic sensitivity test, in which green pigment showed a broad spectrum of activity against Staphylococcus sp., viz., 22.5 mm, 25mm, 27mm, 30mm, and 32 mm respectively.